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The characteristics of a one particle of matter, like atomic size, Ionization enthalpy, electron charging density, the shape and size of molecular molecules, the polarity of the molecular, among others. Many of the observed features of chemical systems that we are familiar with represent the properties of matter in bulk, i.e., the characteristics that are associated with the collection of numerous molecules, atoms, or ions. For instance, an individual one of the molecules in a liquid does not boil, but the whole boils. Water molecules are composed of wetting properties, but the individual molecules are not have the ability to wet. Water is able to exist as ice, an solid, it could be liquid or it may exist in a gaseous state as steam or water vapour. The physical properties of ice, steam, and water are different. In all 3 states of water, the, the chemical composition of water is identical, i.e. H2O. The characteristics of the three states of water are based on the energy of molecules as well as on the way that water molecules are grouped. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Similar is the case for other substances as well. Properties of chemicals of an object don’t alter with changes in its physical condition, however the speed of chemical reactions depend on the physical condition. When handling data from experiments , we need to know the physical state of matter. This is why it is essential for a chemist to understand the physical laws that determine the behavior of matter in various states. In this course we will be learning more about the three states of matter, especially gaseous and liquid state. For starters it is important to know the nature of molecular interactions, intermolecular force and the effect in the thermal energies on movement of particles, as the balance between these influences the physical state of a substance. 5.1 Intermolecular forces are the force of attraction and repulsion between the interacting particle (atoms as well as molecules).


This does not encompass the electrostatic forces that are present between the two negatively charged ions as well as the forces that keep atoms of a molecule i.e. covalent bonds. Intermolecular forces that are attractive are referred to in the form of van der Waals forces, in honor of Dutch scientists Johannes van der Waals (18371837 – 1923) who described the differences in the behaviour of gases from their normal behavior by these forces. We’ll learn more about these forces in the next section. Van der Waals forces differ greatly in strength and comprise dispersion forces, also known as London forces as well as dipole-dipole force and dipole-induced dipole forces. One of the most powerful types of dipole-dipole interplay can be described as hydrogen bonding. Only a handful of elements take part in the formation of hydrogen bonds so it is regarded as a distinct category. We’ve already learned about this relationship. In this regard, it is vital to remember that the attractive forces between an Ion and a dipole are called ion-dipole forces and are not van the Waal. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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In this article, we will discuss various types of van der Waals forces. 5.1.1 Dispersion Forces or London Forces Atoms and nonpolar molecules are electrically symmetrical, and don’t have dipole moment since their charge cloud in the electron is evenly distributed. However, dipoles can form temporarily in such molecules and atoms. It can be explained by following. If we consider that there are two atoms, ‘A and ‘B’ that are located in close proximity to each the other (Fig. 5.1a). It is possible that for a brief period, the electronic charge distribution within an atom (say “A”, becomes non-symmetrical i.e. that charges are greater at one end than on the other (Fig. 5.1 B and C). This leads to the formation of an instantaneous dipole in the atom ‘A’ over only a short amount of duration. The instantaneous, transient dipole alters an electron’s density in second Atom ‘B’ which is located close to it and as a result the formation of a dipole occurs in the atom B.Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

The temporary dipoles of the atom A and B are attracted by each other. Similar temporary dipoles can be induced in molecules too. The forces of attraction were originally suggested by the German scientist Fritz London, and for this reason the force attracted by two dipoles is called London force. Another term for the strength is called dispersion force. They are all attractive. Their interactions energy is related to the 6th power in the distance of two interfering particles (i.e. 1/6, where the distance represents the distance between the two particles). These forces only apply at very short distances (~500 pm) and their intensity is contingent on the ability of the particle to polarize. 5.1.2 Dipole – Dipole Forces Dipole-dipole force acts between molecules that have permanent dipole. The ends of dipoles have “partial charge” and they are represented by the Greek letters delta (d). Partial charges always are less than the electronic charge of the unit (1.610-19 C). 

The the polar molecules interact with each other and with neighbouring molecules. The figure 5.2 (a) illustrates the electron cloud distribution within dipoles of hydrogen chloride. the figure. 5.2 (b) shows dipole-dipole interaction between two HCl molecules. This interaction is more powerful than London forces, but it is less than ion-ion interplay since there are only partial charges in play. The attraction force decreases as the distance between dipoles. In the same way as in the case in this instance the interaction energy is proportional to the distance between the polar molecules. Dipole-dipole energy interaction between stationary molecules that are polar (as as in liquids) can be measured in a ratio of 1/r3 while the interaction energy for rotating molecules is proportional to 1/r6 which is r, the distance between the polar molecules. In addition to dipoledipole interactions the polar molecules may be influenced by London forces as well. This means that the sum of forces between the polar molecules rise. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Dipole-Induced dipole forces This kind of force is attractive to the polar molecules that have permanent dipole, and those without permanent dipole. Permanent dipole of Polar molecule causes dipole to an electrically neutral mole creating it into an electrical cloud (Fig. 5.3). In this way, an induced dipole gets formed in the other molecular. In this scenario, also the interaction energy is proportional to 1/r 6, which is where the distance of two molecules. The dipole moment that induces the interaction is determined by the dipole energy present within the dipole that is permanent, as well as the polarisability of an electroneutral molecules. We’ve already learned during unit 4 that molecules with greater dimensions can easily be and easily polarized. A high degree of polarisability improves the strength of the attractive interactions. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Hydrogen bond, as mentioned in Section (5.1) (5.1); this is a the case of a dipole-dipole interplay that is a unique instance. We’ve already learned from this topic during Unit 4. It is found in molecules that have extremely polar N-H, OH-H or H-F bonding are present. While hydrogen bonding is thought of as being restricted to N O, F and N however, other species like Cl could also be involved with hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bond’s energy ranges between 10 and 100 kJ mole. This is quite a large amount of energy. Hence hydrogen bonds exert a significant influence on the structure and properties of a variety of substances, such as protein and nucleic acids. The strength of the hydrogen bond will be determined by the Coulombic interactions between the electrons in lone-pair form of the electronegative atom in one chemical molecule and the hydrogen atom of the another molecules. This diagram shows the creation that hydrogen bonds. 

Intermolecular forces , as discussed previously are all appealing. Molecules also exert force repulsive on each other. If two molecules are brought to close proximity with one another The repulsion that occurs between electron clouds and among the nuclei in two molecules come into the equation. The strength of the repulsion grows quickly when the distance between the molecules shrinks. This is why solids and liquids are difficult to compress. In these states , molecules exist in tight proximity so they can’t withstand any further compression as this will result in an growth of repulsive interactions. 5.2 The term thermal energy refers to the energy that a body receives from the motion of its molecules or atoms. The temperature directly relates to how hot the material. It is the measurement of average kinetic energy of particles of matter and thus is responsible for the movement of particles. The movement of particles is referred to as thermal motion. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Intermolecular forces vs Thermal Interactions We’ve learned that intermolecular forces help keep the molecules together , however the their thermal energy tends to separate them. The three states result of the equilibrium between the intermolecular forces and temperature of molecules. If molecular interactions are extremely weak, they do not bond to form solid or liquid unless the their thermal energy is decreased by lowering temperature. Gases are not able to liquify due to compression, but they do meet very close to the other and intermolecular forces work at their maximum. When the molecular energy decreases by lowering the temperature of the molecules, they can be easily to be liquified. The dominant role of thermal energy and molecular interactions energy for a compound in three states can be seen as follows: We have discovered the reasons that explains the presence of three different states in matter. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

We will now learn more about liquid and gaseous states as well as the laws that regulate the behavior of things when in them. We will discuss that state of solid matter in class XII. 5.4 The GASEOUS STATE is the most elementary condition of matter. All of our lives, we are at sea in the ocean of air, which is a mix of gases. We live in the bottom part of the atmosphere known as the troposphere that is held to the earth’s surface by the force of gravity. This thin layer the atmosphere is essential to our existence. It protects us from radiations that harm us and includes substances such as dioxygen, carbon dioxide, dinitrogen water vapour, and so on. We will now pay focus on the behavior of the substances that exist in the gaseous form under normal conditions of pressure and temperature. A review of the periodic table will reveal that only 11 elements are present in the form of gases in the normal circumstances. 

The gaseous state is distinguished with the following physical property. Gases are extremely compressible. They exert pressure evenly across all directions. They have a lower density than liquids and solids. The volume and shape of gas molecules are not fixed. They assume the shape and volume that of the vessel. The gases mix evenly and completely in all ratios with no mechanical aid. Gases are simple because interactions among their various molecules are insignificant. The behavior of gases is controlled by the same general laws that were discovered by the result of their experiments. These laws govern the relationships between gas properties that can be measured. Certain of these properties such as volume, pressure, mass, and temperature are extremely significant because the relationships between these variables define the conditions of the gas. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Interdependence between these variables can lead to the creation the gas law. In the next section , we will be discussing gas laws. 5.5 THE LAWS FOR GAS The gases laws we’ll examine now are the outcome of studies conducted over some time on the physical characteristics of gas. The first valid measurement of gas properties was conducted by an Anglo-Irish science researcher Robert Boyle in 1662. The law he came up with is known as Boyle’s law. Later , attempts to fly using hot air balloons inspired Jaccques Louis Gay and Charles find out more gas laws. The contributions of Avogadro and others offered a wealth of details about the gaseous state. 5.5.1 Boyle’s Law (Pressure and Volume Relationship) Based on his research, Robert Boyle reached to the conclusion that at a constant temperature the volume of pressure for a certain quantity (i.e. the number of moles) of gas fluctuates inversely with the volume. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

This is also known as Boyle’s law. Mathematically speaking, it can be expressed in terms of 1 pV ( with constant T, n) (5.1) 1 1 = = k V (5.2) where k1 is the proportionality constant. The value of constant k1 varies on the volume of the gas, the temperature of the gas, and the units that the terms p and V are defined. By rearranging the formula (5.2) we can get pV = K1 (5.3) This implies that at a constant temperature, the volume and pressure of a certain quantity of gas remains constant. If a set quantity of gas at a constant temperature T , occupying the V1 at a pressure of the expansion of p1 occurs, and the volume changes into V2 and pressure is p2, then as per Boyle’s law: p1 V1 = V2 equals continuous (5.4) 1 2 2 1 P V pV (5.5Figure 5.5 shows two typical ways to graphically present Boyle’s law. Fig. 5.5 (a) shows the diagram of equation (5.3) at various temperatures. 

The k1 value for each curve is different due to the fact that for a particular amount of gas changes only in relation to temperature. Each curve is the same constant temperature, and is referred to in the field of isotherm (constant temperature plot). Higher curves indicate greater temperatures. It is worth noting that the volume of CO2 doubles when pressure is cut in half. Table 5.1 describes the impact on volume 0.09 mole of CO2 in 300K. Figure 5.5 (b) depicts the graph that runs between p and 1 V . The graph is straight running through the center. But at higher pressures, gas molecules diverge from Boyle’s law , and in such circumstances, the straight line cannot be found on the graph. Studies conducted by Boyle in a quantitative fashion, show that gases are extremely compressible. This is because, when a certain gas’s mass compresses, the identical amount of molecules will be occupying less space. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Gases become heavier at high pressure. It is possible to establish a relationship between the density and the pressure of a gas using Boyle’s Law : from Boyle’s equation we can obtain the relationship.This illustrates that, at the same temperature it is proportional to density for a mass fixed of gas. gas5.5.2 Charles’ Law (Temperature the Relationship between Volume) Charles and Gay Lussac conducted numerous experiments with gas independently to enhance the technology of hot air balloons. Their research revealed that for an unchanging mass of a gas with a constant pressure, the volume of a gas grows with increasing temperature , but decreases with cooling. They observed that for each degree increase in temperature the volume of a gas is increased by 273.15 of the amount of gas in zero degrees C. So, the gases at 0 degC as well as at T degC, are the same as V0 in turn. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

At this point we are defining the new temperature scale so that t deg Celsius on the new scale will be given as the formula T = 273.15 + t. zero deg C is defined as the formula T0 = 273.15. The new temperature scale is known as”the Kelvin temperature scale, also known as the Absolute temperature scale. Therefore, 0degC on the celsius scale equals 273.15 K at the absolute scale. It is important to note that the degree sign is not utilized to write the temperature in absolute temperature scales, i.e., Kelvin scale. Kelvin scale is known as Thermodynamic scale for temperature, and is employed in all scientific work. So you add 273.15 (more specifically 273.15) on top of the celsius temperatures in order to get temperatures at Kelvin scale. In the equation, we can write: Tt = 273.15 + T0 and the equation T0 equals 273.15 within the equation. This is the general equation in this way. 2. 2 1. Then (5.3) (5.8) 1 2 2 2 T = equals constant, which is k2 T (5.9) So V = V T = k2 (5.10) 5.10) The amount of the constant k2 is determined by the gas’s pressure and its volume as well as the units by which the volume V is calculated.

The equation (5.10) represents the mathematical expression of Charles”law,” which states that with pressure remains constant and that the size of a set mass of a gas will be exactly proportional to the temperature absolute. Charles discovered in all gasses that at any pressure, the graph of temperature vs volume (in Celsius) is straight, and when it reaches zero volume, every line intersects the temperature axis in – 273.15 degree C. The slopes of lines that are obtained at different pressures are different however at zero volume, all lines intersect the temperature axis at 273.15 deg CE. Each line on the temperature graph versus volume is referred to as isobar. The findings of Charles can be understood if we set an amount of the t into the equation (5.6) in the form – 273.15 degrees Celsius. It is evident that the quantity of gas at 273.15 deg C is zero. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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That means that gas cannot exist. Actually, all gasses are liquid prior to reaching this temperature. The smallest hypothetical or imagined temperature that gases are believed to have zero volume is referred to as Absolute Zero. All gases adhere to Charles’ law at extremely low pressures as well as high temperatures.5.5.3 Gay Lussac’s law (PressureTemperature Relationship) The pressure in properly filled tyres on automobiles is nearly constant, however, during a hot summer day, this can increase dramatically and the tyre can rupture if the pressure isn’t appropriately adjusted. When it is winter when it is cold, it is possible to find that the pressure of the tyres of vehicles diminished significantly. The mathematical relation between temperature and pressure was established by Joseph Gay Lussac and is called Gay Lussac’s Law. It states that, at a the same volume, the the pressure of a certain amount of gas fluctuates directly with temperature. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Mathematically the 3rd constant is k = pT pT This equation can be deduced from Boyle’s law as well as Charles”Law. Temperature vs. pressure (Kelvin) graph with constant molar volumes is illustrated in Figure. 5.7. Each line in this graph is referred to as an isochore. Avogadro Law (Volume – Amount Relationship) In 1811, Italian researcher Amedeo Avogadro was attempting to bring together the conclusions from Dalton’s atomic theory as well as Gay Lussac’s law for mixing volume (Unit 1) that is now known in the present as Avogadro law. It declares that the same volumes of all gasses under identical conditions of pressure and temperature contain the same amount of molecules. That means that, as long as temperatures and pressures remain the same the volume is based on the quantity of molecules in the gas, or the quantity of gas. Mathematically, we could write Vn, where n is the mole count of gas. = V n k4 (5.11). 

The quantity of molecules contained in one mole of gas was determined at 6.022 1023. It is also known by the name of Avogadro constant. Figure. 5.7 Pressure vs Temperature (K) diagram (Isochores) of the gas. You will notice that this is the same value that we encountered while discussing the definition of a “mole” (Unit 1.). Because the volume of a gas directly relates to the amount of moles, one mole of every gas at a standard temperatures and at pressure (STP)* will have the similar volume. The term “standard temperature” and “standard pressure” is 273.15 K (0degC) temperature and 1 bar (i.e. precisely 100 pascal) pressure. These figures approximate the freezing temperatures of water as well as the atmospheric pressure of sea levels. The molar volume at STP for an ideal gas or mixture of the ideal gases would be 22.71098 1 L. Molar volume for some gases is listed in (Table 5.2). Argon 22.37 Carbon dioxide 22.54 Dinitrogen 22.69 Dioxygen 22.69. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Molar volume is measured in litres per mole for some gasses in the range of 273.15 K. This is compared to 1 bar (STP). The number of moles in the gas is calculated according to the following formula: n = m (5.12) In which m represents the volume of the gas being studied and M is the molar mass. So V = k4M (5.13) (5.13) The equation (5.13) is modified to read M = k4 the m V is k4d. The “d” is the gas’s density. It is clear from formula (5.14) it is true that the density gas directly relates to the mass in molars. Gases that follow Boyle’s Law, Charles’ law , and Avogadro law in a strict manner is referred to as one that is ideal. This gas is considered to be not real. It is believed that intermolecular forces don’t exist found between the molecules in an ideal gas. Real gasses follow these laws only in certain particular conditions where interactions between molecules are insignificant. In all other circumstances, they deviations from the ideal behavior. The deviations later in this lesson. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Ideal gas equation The three laws we’ve learned to date can be put together into an equation that is known as an ideal gas equation. For an constant T, and at n V 1 Boyle’s Law With constants p and N; V T Charles’ Law at constant p and T; V N Avogadro Law Therefore, nT V p (5.15) is equal to (5.15) nT V (5.16) in which R represents the proportionality constant. When we reorganize this equation (5.16) we get the following equation: pV = nRT (5.17) = R = (5.18) (5.18) (5.18) R referred to as a gas constant. It is the same for all gasses. It is therefore also referred to as Universal Gas Constant. The equation (5.17) is known as the an ideal gas equation. Equation (5.18) indicates that the value of R is dependent on the units that the variables p, V and are taken into account. If the three variables in this equation are identified then fourth can be calculated. Based on this equation, we can observe that at constant temperatures and pressure, n moles of any gas will be the same size since R = n T V p . n,R,T and p are the same. 

This equation is applicable to any gas, in those conditions that the gas is similar to ideal behavior. The volume of one mole of the ideal gas under conditions of STP (273.15 K, and 1 bar of pressure) is 22.710981 L mol-1. The R value for one mole of ideal gas can be calculated in these conditions according to the following formula : ( )( ) ( )( ) 5 3 3.10 Pa 22.71 10 M R = 1mol 273.15 K= 8.314 Pa m3 K-1 mole = 8.314 10-2 bar L Mol-1 is 8.314 JK-1mol-1 the earlier conditions of STP (0 temperature of 0 degrees and pressure 1 atm) The R value was 8.20578 10.2 L mol-1. The ideal gas equation describes a relationship between four variables. It defines the state of gas. It is also known as an equation of state. We will now return on the gas equation that we would like to have. This is the relation to the simultaneous change between the three variables. If the temperature, volume, as well as pressure for a certain amount of gas differ between T1, V1 and the p1 value to T2, V2 and p2, we can create 11 2 2 1 2 = R pV PV n N T T 11 2 1 2 = P V pV T. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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If six the values from five variables are established, the value of the unknown variables can be determined by using this equation (5.19). The equation can also be referred to by the name Combined Gas Law 5.6.2 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures. This law was first proposed by John Dalton in 1801. It declares that the total pressure imposed through the mix of non-reactive gasses will be equal to total partial pressures of the individual gases i.e. the pressures these gases would be able to exert in the event that they were kept separately in the same space and in identical conditions of temperature. In a mixture of gasses the pressure exerted by each individual gas is referred to as partial pressure. Mathematically, pTotal = (p1+p2+p3 +……(at the constant of T (V) (5.23) in which pTotal represents the pressure exerted by the mix of gases. P1 and p2 and p3. are partial pressures for gases. Gases are typically absorbed by water, and are therefore moist. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Pressure of dry gas may be determined by subtracting the vapour the pressure of water by entire pressure for the moist gas that also contains water vapours. Pressure created by water vapour that is saturated is referred to as aqueous tension. The aqueous tension of water at various temperatures is described in Table 5.3. Dry gas = pTotal x Aqueous Tension 5.7 Theorem of Kinetic Molecules for GASES Thus far , we’ve learned about how to apply the law (e.g. Boyle’s Law, Charles’ law etc.) which are short explanations of observations made in the laboratory by scientists. Conducting meticulous research is an essential element of the scientific method. it reveals what the system in question performs under various circumstances. But, after the results are confirmed scientists are curious to find out what is causing the system to behave in this way. For instance gas laws allow us determine that pressure rises when compressing gases. However, we’d like to know what happens at a the molecular scale when a gas is compressed? 

A theory is created to answer such queries. A theory is a conceptual model (i.e. it is a mental image) which helps us better comprehend the world around us. The theory which tries to explain the behavior of gases is called the kinetic molecular theories. Postulates or assumptions of the kineticmolecular theories of gas are provided below. These postulates are connected to molecules and atoms that are not visible, which is why it is believed to be a microscopic representation of gas molecules. Gases are composed of a huge quantity of similar molecules (atoms as well as molecules) that are so tiny and far apart in average that the size of molecules is small relative to the spaces between them. They are regarded as mass-to-point. This explanation explains the huge compression of gases. * There isn’t any attraction force between gases at normal temperature and pressure. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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The basis for this belief lies in gas expansion and take up all space that is available to them. The particles of a gas are moving in a constant and random manner. In the event that particles were in a state of rest and in fixed positions then the gas been of a predetermined shape, but this cannot be visible. The particles of a gas can move in any direction with straight lines. In their random movement they collide with one their counterparts and containers’ walls. The pressure is created by the gas in the course from collisions of the particles against containers’ walls. The collisions of gas molecules are extremely elastic. This means that the total energy of molecules prior to and after the collision is the identical. There is a possibility of the exchange of energy that occurs between collisions and their energy levels may fluctuate, but the total of their energy is constant. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

If there was a the loss of energy kinetic that is lost, the movement of molecules will cease and the gases will slow down. This is in contrast to the reality. * At any time there are different particle sizes in gas possess various speeds, which results in different energy kinetics. This is since, as the particles collide, we can expect that their speed will change. Even if the initial speed for all particles was equal and the collisions between molecular particles will cause a disruption to the uniformity. Thus, particles be of different speeds, and continue to change continuously. It is possible to prove that even though the speeds change however the distribution of speed is constant at a certain temperature. If a molecule is of different speeds, it has an energy kinetics variable. This means that we only have to speak of the average energy of kinetics. In the kinetic theory, it is assumed that the average energy of gases molecules are directly related with the absolute temperature.

It is observed that upon heating a gas with a constant volume, its pressure rises. As the gas is heated, the it’s kinetic energy increase and they hit with the containers’ walls more often and thus exert greater pressure. The kinetic theory of gases lets us to theoretically determine all of the gas laws that we have that we have studied in the preceding sections. Predictions and calculations based upon kinetic theory of gas agree well with experimental findings and prove the validity of the model. 5.8 BEHAVIOUR OF REAL GASES The deviation from ideal gas BEHAVIOUR Our theoretical model of gases matches very well to observations observed in the field. Difficulty arises when we try to test how far the relation pV = nRT reproduce actual pressure-volume-temperature relationship of gases. To determine this, we plot a pV/p plot of gases as at constant temperatures, pV will remain always constant (Boyle’s law) and pV vs graph for all pressures will result in straight lines parallel to the the x-axis. A plot derived using actual data for a variety of gazing gases with 273 K. Theoretically calculated from Boyle’s laws (ideal gas) should be in alignment. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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It is clear that at extremely high pressure the volume that is measured is higher than the volume calculated. At low pressures, the measured and calculated volumes are close to each the other. Fig. 5.8 Figure 5.8 Plot of pressure plot vs the pressure for realistic gas as well as ideal gas Figure. 5.9 Plot of pressure against volume for ideal gas and real gas It can be observed quickly that even at constant temperatures, the plot of pV vs. p for the real gases isn’t an unidirectional line. There is a noticeable difference from the expected behavior. Two kinds of curves can be seen.In the graphs of dihydrogen and helium, when the pressure rises, the value of pV will also increase. The other type of graph can be seen when dealing with other gases such as methane and carbon monoxide. In these graphs, there is a negative deviation from the ideal behavior. The value of pV decreases as the an increase in pressure until it is at its lowest typical of the gas. Then the pV value starts growing. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

The curve crosses the ideal gas line and then shows a an uninterrupted positive shift. The result is that actual gases don’t conform to ideal gas equations in all circumstances. Deviation from the ideal model can be seen when a pressure vs . volume plots are drawn. The plot of volume vs pressure of data from experiments (real gases) and that it is observed that the real gases don’t follow Boyle’s Law, Charles law or Avogadro law completely under any conditions. There are two issues that arise. (i) What causes gases to differ from the ideal behaviour? (ii) what are the reasons that cause gases are able to deviate from their ideal behaviour? We can answer the first question when we examine the theories of kinetic theory again. Two assumptions in the theory of kinetics don’t hold water. They are: (a) There is no attraction force between the gas molecules. (b) The volume of compounds of gas are tiny in comparison to the space that the gas occupies. 

If the assumption (a) is true it is true that the gas will never become liquid. But, we do know that gases do liquify after being they are compressed and cooled. Additionally, liquids that form are extremely difficult to compress.This implies that the force of attraction is strong enough to stop the compression of molecules in a small volumes. If (b) is true then the pressure vs volume graph from experimental results (real gas) and the graph calculated using Boyles law (ideal gas) will be in line. Real gases exhibit some deviations from the ideal gas laws because molecules interact with one another. At high pressures , molecules of gases are close to one another. Molecular interactions begin to occur. When pressure is high molecules don’t hit on the wall of the vessel at full impact, because they are pulled back by other molecules as a result of molecular forces of attraction. This alters the pressure that is exerted by molecular walls on which they are. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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The pressure generated by the gas is less than the pressure generated in the ideal gas. 2 2 is a perfect real = + n the pressure + p V (5.30) The pressure that is observed for correction term In this case, it is a constant. Repulsive forces can also be important. Repulsive interactions are a type of short-range interaction and they are important when molecules are close to contact. This happens at high pressure. The forces that cause repulsive force cause molecules to behave like tiny but impermeable spheres. The volume that is occupied by molecules also increases because instead of moving in the V volume, they are now limited to the volume (V-nb) in which nb is the approximate volume that the molecules occupy themselves. In this case, there is a constant called b. After taking into consideration the corrections to volume and pressure and volume, we can write equation that is called van der Waals equation. In this equation, n represents the number of moles in the gas. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Constants a and B are known as van der Waals constants, and their value is based on the properties of the gas. The value of “a” is a measurement of the size of the intermolecular forces in the gas. It is not dependent on temperature or pressure. Additionally, at a extremely low temperatures intermolecular forces are important. Because molecules travel at slow average speeds, they could be captured by another through attractive forces. Real gases exhibit optimal behaviour in the event that temperatures and pressure are set so that the forces between molecules are minimal. Real gasses exhibit optimal behavior when pressure is close to zero. The deviation from the ideal behavior can be assessed by the compressibility factor Z that is the proportion between product pV and the number of revolutions per second. Mathematically, R pV = T (5.32) In the ideal gas, Z is 1 at any temperature and pressure, since Z = n RT. 

A graph of Z and p will be straight line that is parallel to the axis of pressure (Fig. 5.10). For gases that deviate from the ideal state, the value of Z is different from the unity value. At very low pressures , all gasses shown have Z 1. They behave as an ideal gases. At higher pressures, all gases show Z greater than 1. They are harder to compress. At pressures that are intermediate, the majority of gasses have Z 1. Therefore, gases exhibit optimal behavior when the volume they are occupying is huge, so that the size of the molecules is not considered when compared to. This means that the gas’s behavior improves when pressure is low. What pressure at which gas can be expected to obey an ideal law of gas is dependent on the what the gas’s characteristics are and the temperature. A temperature where a gas obeys the ideal gas law within a significant distance of pressure known as Boyle temperature , also known as Boyle point. Boyle value of gas is based on the nature of the gas. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Over they reach their Boyle point, actual gasses show significant deviations in idealization, and Z values are more than one. Forces of attraction among molecules are weak. Below Boyle temperature , the real gases first begin to show a an increase in Z value as pressure increases until it reaches a minimal value. With each increase in pressure it is observed that the amount of Z is constantly increasing. This explanation demonstrates how at lower pressure as well as high temperatures, gases exhibit ideal behavior. These conditions differ for various gasses. A deeper understanding of the importance of Z by observing the following equation: real = RpV Z (5.33) n (5.33) When the gas behaves in a way that is ideal, and ideal R is nT V p . When we put this number of n TR P in the equation (5.33) we get real ideal = VZ (5.34) In the equation (5.34) it is possible to determine that the compressibility factor represents the ratio of the actual volume of a substance to the volume of the gas as if it were the ideal gas at that pressure and temperature. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

In the next sections, we will find out that it is impossible to differentiate between gaseous and liquid state , and that liquids could be considered to be continuation of the gas phase in an area of very small quantities and very large molecular attraction. We will also look at how we can utilize isotherms for gases to determine the conditions required for the liquifaction of gases. 5.9 LIQUIFACTION of gases First complete information on the pressure – volume – temperature relationships of a compound in both liquid and gaseous state was gathered from Thomas Andrews on carbon dioxide. He plotted isotherms for carbon dioxide at different temperatures (Fig. 5.11). Then it was discovered that gaseous substances behave the same way like carbon dioxide. Andrews discovered that at high temperatures, isotherms resemble those of a perfect gas, and the gas can’t be dissolved even at high pressure. 

When the temperature decreases the its shape shifts and the results show significant variations from the ideal behavior. At 30.98 degC, carbon dioxide remains gas until the pressure of 73 atm. (Point E, in Fig. 5.11). With a pressure of 73 atm, carbon dioxide liquid is visible in the air for the very first time. The temperature of 30.98 degC is known as the Critical Temperature (TC) in carbon dioxide. It is the temperature at which the liquid carbon dioxide can be observed. At temperatures above this, it’s gas. The volume of one mole of gas at the critical temperature is known as”critical volume” (VC) and the pressure that is at or above this point known as crucial pressure (pC). Critical temperature, pressure, and volume are known as critical constants. A further increase in pressure makes the carbon dioxide liquid more compressible and the curve shows the liquid’s compressibility. The steep line is the isotherm of the liquid. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Even a small compression can result in a dramatic increase in pressure, which indicates low compression of the liquid. When the temperature is below 30.98 degrees Celsius, the behavior of the gas in compression is very different. At 21.5 degC carbon dioxide is still an gas until point B. At this point the liquid of a specific volume is seen. The compression process does not alter the pressure. Gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid exist together and each additional pressure application causes the condensation of gas , until the temperature at which C is attained. At the point C at which point all gas has condensed and any further application of pressure only makes the liquid more compressible as is evident by the steep lines. A small compression from V2 to V3 leads to a an abrupt rise in pressure from p2 to (Fig. 5.11). Under 30.98 degree Celsius (critical temperature) Each curve displays the same pattern. The length of horizontal lines is increased at lower temperatures. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

At a critical point, the horizontal part of the isotherm converges to one point. We can see that the point A in Fig. 5.11 is a gaseous state. A point similar to D indicates liquid state, and a point in the dome-shaped area indicates the that there is a gaseous state and a liquid carbon dioxide that are in equilibrium. All gases that are compressed at constant temperatures (isothermal compression) exhibit the same behavior similar to that of carbon dioxide. The above discussion also shows that gases must be cooled to below their critical temperature in order to facilitate the process of liquification. Critical temperature of a gas is the most extreme temperature at which liquidification of the gas occurs. Liquifaction in so-called permanent gasses (i.e. gasses that exhibit continuous positive deviations of Z number) requires cooling and significant compression. Compression is a process that brings molecules into close proximity and cooling can slow down the motion of molecules. Consequently intermolecular interactions can be able to hold the slowly and closely moving molecules in place and the gas is able to liquify. 

The possibility exists to convert the gas from liquid to the liquid into gas through the use of a procedure in which only one phase is present. As an example, in Fig. 5.11 we can travel from A F vertically by increasing the temperature. and then reach place G, by compressing gas at a constant temperature in the isotherm (isotherm at 31.1degC). The pressure will rise. We can now move in a vertical direction towards D, dropping the temperature. When we reach the point H on the critical isotherm, we will be able to see liquid. It is a liquid, however in this cycle of transformations, we don’t go through a two-phase zone. When the process is executed at the temperature of critical the substance remains within one state. Therefore, there is continuity between liquid and gaseous state. The term”flour” is utilized to refer to either liquid or gas to acknowledge this continuity. Therefore, a liquid could be thought of as a dense gas. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Gas and liquids can be distinct only when the gas is at or below its critical temperature, and its volume and pressure are located under the dome. In this situation gas and liquid are in equilibrium, and there is a boundary between the two phases can be seen. Without this surface , there isn’t any fundamental method of distinguishing between the two states. At temperatures that are critical liquid changes into a gaseous state in a non-sensical and continuous manner The surface that separates two states is gone (Section 5.10.1). Gases below the temperature of critical can be liquified through pressure and is referred to as”vapour,” which refers to the chemical substance. Carbon dioxide gas that is below its critical temperature is known as CO2 vapour. Critical constants for a variety of typical substances are provided in Table 5.4. Sections we will explore some physical properties of liquids, such as the Vapour pressure and surface tension, and viscosity. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Vapour Pressure When an evacuated container is filled with liquid, a part of the liquid evaporates and fills the remaining space within the container by vapour. At first, the liquid evaporates and pressure exerted by vapours onto inside the containers (vapour pressure) is increased. After a certain period, it remains constant, and an equilibrium is reached between liquid as well as the vapour. Vapour pressure in this phase is called equilibrium vapour pressure or saturated pressure.. Vapourisation process is dependent on temperature, it is essential to mention the temperature in reporting the pressure at which vapour is released from the liquid. When the liquid is heated within the open container, it evaporates from the surface. When the temperature at which it is at a point where the vapour pressure is equal to its external pressure, the vapourisation may be observed throughout the entire volume of the liquid, and the vapours expand outwards into the surrounding. 

The state of vapourisation that is free in the liquid is referred to as boiling. Temperature at which the the vapour pressure of the liquid is at the same level as external pressure is referred to as the boiling temperature at the pressure. Vapour pressure of a variety of commonly used liquids at different temperatures is shown in (Fig. 5.12). 1. A pressure of 1 atm boiling temperature is referred to as the normal boiling point. If the pressure is 1 bar, that is the boil point will be known as the standard boiling point of the liquid. The standard temperature of boiling of the liquid can be a bit lower than the normal boiling point as the pressure of 1 bar is lower than 1 atm pressure. The standard boiling point for water is 100 degrees Celsius (373 K) Its normal temperature of boiling is 99.6 degrees Celsius (372.6 K). At higher altitudes, atmospheric pressure is lower. Thus, liquids at higher altitudes have lower temperatures of boiling than those in sea-level. Because water boils at a lower temperature in mountains The pressure cooker is utilized to cook food. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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In hospitals, surgical instruments are sterilized by autoclaves, where the boiling points of the water are raised by raising the pressure above the atmospheric pressure using an obstruction like a weight that covers the vent. Boiling doesn’t occur when the liquid is heated within closed vessels. As the temperature is heated continuously, vapour pressure rises. In the beginning, a clear line is evident between the vapour phase and liquid since liquid is heavier than vapour. As temperature rises, the number of molecules that go to the vapour phase, and the Vapours’ density rises. The liquid gets less dense. It expands as molecules move further apart. When the density of liquids and vapours are identical, the clear separation between liquid and vapours disappears. This is referred to as critical temperature which we’ve previously discussed in Section 5.9. 5.10.2 Surface Tension It’s a common knowledge that liquids take the form of the containers. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Why do tiny mercury drops form an spherical beads instead of spreading across the surface. Why are the soil particles at the bottom of rivers remain separate, but stick together after being removed ? What causes a liquid to change its direction (or fall) in a capillary that is thin when the capillary reaches the surface of the liquid? These phenomena occur by the fundamental property of liquids, referred to as surface tension. A molecule within the majority of liquid has equal forces intermolecular from all directions. This means that the molecule is not subject to the net effect of any force. For the molecule that is on the surface of the liquid the net force of attraction is toward the inside that of liquid (Fig. 5.13) due to those molecules beneath it. Since there aren’t any molecules above it, there is no reason to worry about the molecules below. Liquids tend to reduce its surface. The molecules that are on the surface feel an upward force, and are more energetic than those that are in bulk. They don’t feel the net effect of force. 

So, liquids generally contain the least amount of molecules present on their surface. If the surface area of the liquid increases by removing a individual molecule away out of the mass, the attraction forces have to be overpowered. This will require the expenditure of energy. The energy needed for a liquid to expand its surface by 1 unit can be defined as surface energy. Its dimensions are J m2. Surface tension refers to the force that is acting per unit length that is perpendicular to the line that is drawn across the surface of the liquid. It is indicated by Greek letter”g” (Gamma). Its dimensions are kg s-2. In SI unit, it is expressed by N m-1. The lowest energy state for the liquid is when its the surface area is minimal. Spherical shape is a good fit for this requirement which is the reason why mercury drops have a spherical shape. This is why sharp edges of glass are heated to make them smooth. After heating the glass, it melts, as the glass’s surface is prone to be rounded around the edges, which gives the edges a smooth. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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This is also known as polishing with fire of glass. Liquids tend to rise (or drop) in the capillary as a result of tension on the surface. Liquids irritate things due to the fact that they are spread over their surfaces as a thin film. Soil grains that are moist are pulled together as the surface area of a thin film of water decreases. This is the reason for surface tension that creates a stretching surface of liquids. On flat surfaces drops, they get slightly flattened because of the force of gravity. In gravity-free environments, drops are completely smooth and spherical. The degree of the surface tension of a liquid is dependent on the forces that attract the molecules. If the attractive forces are high and strong, the surface tension becomes significant. Temperature increases the energy that kinetically moves molecules and the efficiency of intermolecular attraction decreases. which means that the surface tension decreases as the temperature rises. 5.10.3 Viscosity is among the main characteristics of liquids. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Viscosity measures resistance to flow that occurs from the internal friction between the layers of fluid that slide across one another as fluid flows. The strong intermolecular forces between molecules bind them and prevent the movement of layers that pass each other. When liquids flow over an unfixed surface that layer that is in the direct contact with the surface remains stationary. The velocity of the upper layer increase as the distance between different layers grows. This kind of flow where there is a consistent progression of velocity between layers next is known as laminar flow. If we select any layer within the flow liquid (Fig.5.14) The layer on top of it increases its flow, while the layer below slows its flow. Fig. 5.14 The velocity gradient in laminar flow. When the speed of the layers at the distance of dz is modified by a number du, the velocity gradient will be determined by the quantity du dz . The force required is necessary to control laminar flow. 

The force is proportional the contact area of layers as well as the velocity gradient i.e. F (A refers to the contact area) du dz (where du dz is velocity gradient; the variation in velocity as the distance) Du A. Dz F du A dz = = e F E’is a proportionality constant, also known as the coefficient of viscosity. Viscosity coefficient describes the force that occurs when the velocity gradient is unchanging and the contact area is one area. So’e’ is the an indicator of viscosity. The SI unit for viscosity coefficient is 1 newton second/square metres (N s M-2) (passcal second) (Pa 1 kg m-1s-1). In the CGS system, the coefficient of viscosity is measured in a unit called is called poise (named in honor of the great science researcher Jean Louise Poiseuille). 1 poise is 1 g cm-1s-1 = 10-1kg m-1s-1 The higher the viscosity, more slowly liquid flows. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces are powerful enough to produce high viscosity. Glass is a highly viscous liquid. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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It’s so viscous it has properties that resemble solids. But, the characteristic of glass’s flow can be observed by taking measurements of the thickness of windowspanes from old structures. They become thicker at lower end than at the top. Viscosity of liquids decreases as the temperature rises because at high temperature molecules have high kinetic energy and can overcome the intermolecular forces to slip past one another between the layers.Intermolecular forces operate between the particles of matter. These forces are different from the pure electrostatic forces that are created between two negatively charged ions. They also do not encompass forces that hold the atoms of an atom covalently linked by a covalent bonds. The competition between intermolecular and thermal energy interactions determines the condition of matter. “Bulk” characteristics of the material, such as the behavior of gases. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

properties of liquids and solids and changes in their state are based on the energy of the particles as well as the nature that they interact with. Properties of chemical substances don’t alter with changes in state, however the degree of reactivity is dependent upon the physical state. The forces of interactions among gas molecules are minimal and are nearly independent of their chemical properties. Interdependence between observable properties such as volume, pressure, temperature , and mass results in various gas laws derived from studies of gases’ experimental properties. Boyle’s law states that , under an isothermal conditions, the pressure of a predetermined quantity of gas is ininverse proportion to the volume. Charles Boyle’s law is a relation between absolute temperature and volume in isobaric conditions. It states that the volume of a certain quantity in gas directly proportional to the absolute temperature ( ) V T . 

If the state of the gas is represented by the variables p1, V1 and when it is changed to its state at the points p2, V2 and T2 The connection between the two states can be determined by the combined gas law in which eleven 2 2 1 pV T T = . Each of the variables in this gas could be found out, if the remaining five variables are identified. Avogadro law says that all gases that are subject to the identical conditions of pressure and temperature contain the same number of molecules. Dalton’s law of partial pressure states that the total pressure created by a mixture of non-reacting gasses can be measured as the total of partial pressures that they exert. Thus p = p1+p2+p3+ … . Relationship between volume, pressure temperature, pressure and the moles of a gas defines its state and is known as”equation of state” of gas. The equation of state for the ideal gas is pV=nRT which is a gas constant , and its value is based on the which units are used for volume, pressure and temperature. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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When pressure is high and the temperature , intermolecular forces are able to work powerfully between the gas molecules because they are near to one another. When the temperature and pressure are appropriate conditions, gases can be Liquidized. Liquids can be viewed as a the continuation of gas phase in the region of small volume , but with very powerful molecular attraction. Certain properties associated with liquids e.g. viscosity and surface tension are due to the strong intermolecular attraction forces. Science can be considered as a continuous human endeavor to organize knowledge to understand and describe the nature. You’ve learned in your classes previously that there are a myriad of elements in nature, and the changes they undergo in everyday life. The formation of curds from milk and vinegar formation from sugarcane juice after keeping for a long time, and the corrosion of iron are a few of the instances of change that we encounter often. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Ceramic remains from pottery glazed with glazes have been discovered in Mohenjodaro. Gypsum cement was used for construction. It is composed of lime, sand and even traces of CaCO3. Harappans produced faience. It was the type of glass that was used for ornaments. They were able to melt and forge range of objects made of metals like silver, lead and copper. They enhanced the toughness of copper to create artefacts by using tin or arsenic. Glass objects were discovered at Maski within South India (1000-900 BCE) as well as Hastinapur as well as Taxila from North India (1000-200 BCE). The glazes and glass were colored through the addition of colouring agents such as metal oxides. The metallurgical process of copper in India has been in use since the beginning of chalcolithic civilizations that were found in subcontinental India. There are many archeological proofs to support the idea that techniques to extract iron and copper were developed by the indigenous. 

According to Rigveda the tanning of leather and dying cotton was practiced between 1000 and 400 BCE. The golden shine that is the hallmark of black polish wares of northen India cannot be duplicated and remains an unsolved chemical mystery. These wares demonstrate the skill in which the temperature of the kiln could be maintained. Kautilya’s Arthashastra describes the process of making salt from seawater. Many of the statements and information in the old Vedic writings can be proved to be in line with current discoveries in science. Copper utensils, iron silver, gold ornaments, terracotta discs, as well as painted grey pottery have been discovered at numerous archaeological sites throughout north India. Sushruta Samhita discusses the significance of Alkalies. It also explains the importance of Alkalies. Charaka Samhita mentions ancient indians who could prepare Nitric acid, sulphuric acid along with oxides from copper zinc and tin; the Sulphates of zinc, copper and iron, as well as the carbonates of iron and lead. Rasopanishada describes the process of making gunpowder mix. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Tamil texts also discuss the making of fireworks with saltpetre, charcoal, sulphur (i.e. potassium Nitrate) mercury, camphor and many more. Nagarjuna was a renowned Indian scientist. He was a highly regarded chemical chemist, alchemist and a metalurgist. His research at Rasratnakar examines the formulating for mercury-based compounds. He also has discussed methods to extract metals like silver, gold, and copper. The book Rsarnavam that was written around 800 CE. It discusses the use of different ovens, furnaces and crucibles to serve various reasons. It outlines methods that metals can be identified using color of the flame. Chakrapani discovered mercury sulphide. The credit for the invention of soap also belongs to him. He utilized mustard oil as well as some alkalies for making soap. Indians began to make soap around the time of 1890 CE. Oil from Eranda and the seeds of Mahua plant, as well as calcium carbonate were utilized for soap making. The artifacts found within the walls Ajanta and Ellora and look new even after years, attest to the superiority of scientific research that was carried out in the early days of India. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

Varahmihir’s Brihat Samhita is a type of encyclopedia, written in the sixth century CE. It explains the process of preparation of glutinous materials to be sprayed on the walls and roofs of homes and temples. It was made entirely using extracts from various plants fruit, seeds, and barks. They were boiled to concentrate before being treated using different resins. It would be fascinating to study these materials scientifically, and then evaluate them for use.A many of the classic texts, including Atharvaveda (1000 BCE) mention various dyes. The substance used was turmeric and madder. They also mentioned sunflower orpiment and cochineal. lac. Other substances with tinting properties were kamplcica jatuka, and pattanga. Varahmihir’s Brihat Samhita contains an overview of cosmetics and perfumes. Hair dye recipes were derived from plants such as indigo, minerals such iron power black iron or steel and acidic extracts from the sour rice gruel. 

Gandhayukli discusses recipes for making fragrances, mouth perfumes and bath products, incense and talcum powder. Paper was a popular item in India from the beginning of the 17th century, as an evidenced by the account Chinese traveler I-tsing’s descriptions. Excavated remains at Taxila show that ink was being used in India in the 4th century. The ink colours were made of clay, lead red, and the minimum. It is believed that the fermentation process was well-known to Indians. Vedas along with Kautilya’s Arthashastra discuss a variety of spirits. Charaka Samhita also discusses the elements, including the barks of plants, stem flowers, leaves and cereals, woods and sugarcane used to make Asavas. The notion that matter is composed of unbreakable building blocks was first introduced in India in the early centuries BCE in philosophical theories. Acharya Kanda was born in 600 BCE and was originally known under the name Kashyap was the first person to promote the “atomic theory”. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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He developed the theory of tiny indistinguishable particles, which named “Paramanu” (comparable to the atoms). He wrote the book Vaiseshika Sutras. According to his theory that all substances are aggregated in the form of smaller units, called Atoms (Paramanu) that are indestructible, eternal as well as spherical and suprasensible. moving in their beginning. He explained that the individual object is not able to be detected by any organ of the human body. Kanda explained that there exist different kinds of atoms, which differ from the diverse types of substances. He stated that the atoms (Paramanu) might form triplets or triplets, in addition to other combinations. He also said that invisible forces create interactions between them. He developed this theory about 2500 years prior to John Dalton (1766-1844). Charaka Samhita is the oldest Ayurvedic epic in India. It outlines the treatment of illnesses. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

The idea of reducing the size of the metals’ particles is discussed clearly within Charaka Samhita. A drastic reduction in the size of particles is referred to as nanotechnology. Charaka Samhita outlines the usage of bhasma metals to treat diseases. Today, it has been confirmed that bhasmas are made of nanoparticles of metallic particles. Following the demise of alchemy Iatrochemistry was able to maintain its status however, it also diminished because of the development and practice of the western medical system during late in the century of 20th. In this time of stagnation, the pharmaceutical industry that was built on Ayurveda was still in existence however, it also decreased slowly. It took between 100 and 150 years to allow Indians to acquire and adapt new methods. In this period the introduction of foreign products. In the end, traditional Indian techniques slowly weakened. The modern science emerged on the Indian scene towards the end of the part of the 19th century. 

Around the middle of the nineteenth century European science began to move to India and modern chemistry was increasing. Through the discussion above you’ve learned that chemistry is concerned with the structure, composition properties, and interection of matter. It is great benefit to humans throughout their lives. These aspects can be explained and understood by way of the basic components of matter which comprise molecules and atoms. This is why Chemistry is also known as the study of atoms as well as molecules. Can we observe the weight and size of these objects (atoms or molecules)? Are we able to measure the amount of atoms and molecules within a certain mass of matter, and also have a an exact relation between mass and quantity that these particle have? We will be able to answer to the questions raised in this Unit. We will also explain the physical properties of matter that can be described quantitatively using numerical numbers using appropriate. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Chemistry is a key component in science and is frequently connected to other areas of science. The principles of chemistry can be applied to a variety of areas including weather patterns, the functioning of brains and the operation of a computer, chemical industries, making fertilisers acidic compounds, alkalis and dyes, polymers and detergents, soaps and alloys, and so on. and also new materials. Chemistry contributes significantly in a way to the economic growth of the country. Chemistry also plays a crucial part in meeting the needs of humans for health products, food and other materials designed to improve the quality of living. This is evident in the mass production of many fertilisers, as well as the improved range of insecticides and pesticides. Chemistry offers methods to isolate life-saving medications from natural sources, and allows the synthesizing these medications. Some of these medications are taxol and cisplatin that are both efficient in treating cancer. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

This medication AZT (Azidothymidine) can be utilized to treat AIDS patients. Chemistry plays a significant amount to the development and expansion of a nation. With better understanding of the principles of chemical chemistry, it’s now feasible to develop and create new materials that have particular electric, magnetic as well as optical characteristics. This has led to the creation of superconducting ceramics, conductor optical fibres, polymers and many more. Chemistry has led to the development of industries that manufacture utility products such as dyes, acids, alkalies and polymesr metals. These industries contribute in a significant way to the economic health of a nation , and also create jobs. Recently Chemistry has been instrumental in tackling certain of the most pressing issues of environmental degradation, with an acceptable degree of accomplishment. Safer alternatives to environmentally hazardous refrigerants, like CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), responsible for ozone depletion in the stratosphere, have been successfully synthesised. 

But, a lot of environmental issues are issues of great concern to the chemical scientists. One of these is managing Green House gases, like carbon dioxide, methane and so on. Understanding biochemical processes, the use of enzymes to produce large-scale quantities of chemical compounds and the creation of exotic materials are just a few of the major intellectual challenges facing the next generation of chemical scientists. The developing world, just like India requires skilled and innovative chemists to be facing these problems. To be a competent scientist and be able to handle these challenges, one has to grasp the fundamental concepts of chemistry. These concepts start with the notion of matter. Let’s start by defining the basic nature of matter. 1.2 NATURE OF MATTER have probably heard of the word matter from your older classes. Everything that is mass-based as well as occupies space, is referred to as matter.Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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Everything we see around us, like for instance, books pencil, pen, air, water, living creatures as well as. are made up of material. They have mass and that they take up space. Let’s look back at the features that characterize the different states of matter that you learned in earlier classes. 1.2.1 State of Matter As you are aware that matter may be found in 3 physical forms viz. gas, liquid, and solid. The fundamental particles of the matter that exist in each of these states may be represented in Figure. 1.1. Particles are held close to one another in solids, in an orderly way, but there isn’t much movement freedom. In liquids, particles are very close to each however they are able to move around. However, in gas they are from each other as compared to the ones that are present in liquid or solid states, and their movement is smooth and swift. Due to this the arrangement of particles, different states of matter display the following features: (i) Solids have certain volume and have a specific shape. (ii) Liquids possess a definite volume , but they do not have a defined shape. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

They have the form of the container they are put. (iii) Gases have neither definite volume nor definite shape. They completely fill the space within the container where they’re placed. Three kinds of substances are interchangeable through the alteration of pressure and temperature. Solid liquid Gas When heated the solid typically changes to liquid, and then the liquid, upon further heating, transforms in to gases (or gas (or). The reverse is also true. the gas that is cooled is liquified to liquid, and the liquid after further cooling is frozen to the solid.2. Definition of Matter in Class IX (Chapter 2) You have learned that at the macroscopic , or the bulk scale, material may be classified as pure or mix substance. The sub-divided matter can be further classified according to the figure. 1.2. If all of the particles in the substance are identical in chemical composition it is said to be an absolute substance. A mixture can be described as a mixture of various kinds of particles.

A mixture is made up comprised of 2 or more substances that could be present in any proportion. Their composition therefore can be different. Pure substances in a the mixture are referred to as its components. The majority of the elements in your surroundings are mixtures. For instance, sugar solution in air, water tea, air, etc. They are all mixtures. A mixture could be heterogeneous or homogeneous. In a homogeneous mix that is, the components mix completely with one another. The particles of the mix are evenly scattered throughout the figure. 1.2 The classification of the matter. 1.1 The arrangement of particles in liquid, solid and gaseous states. The bulk of the mixture , and its composition is consistent across. Air and sugar solution are two examples of homogeneous mixes. Contrary to this heterogeneous mixtures the composition isn’t uniform across the board and often the different components are evident. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.

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For instance, the mixtures of sugar and salt grains and pulses, as well as some dirt (often stones) are heterogeneous mixes. There are several other examples of the kinds of mixtures that are encountered in everyday routine of life. It is important to note that the elements of a mix can be separated using physical methods, for example, simple hand-picking or filtration, distillation, crystallization, etc. Pure substances possess distinct characteristics from mixtures. Pure particles are of a fixed composition. Gold, silver, copper and glucose are samples of the pure materials. Glucose is composed of oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen in a specific ratio, and the particles are of the similar composition. So, as with all pure substance glucose has a predetermined composition. Also, its constituents–carbon, hydrogen and oxygen–cannot be separated by simple physical methods. Pure substances are classified into compounds and elements. The elements’ particles consist of just one kind of atoms. They can be formed in the form of molecules or atoms. Best JEE Coaching in Silchar.