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16. Paleontology is research into fossils, impressions and remains from past living organisms. 17. The term “virology” refers to an investigation of the virus in all aspects of them. 5. Connection of Biology with other Field Of Study Biology constitutes the connection with all aspects of human life and all sciences. Biology requires experience from all disciplines of science, such as the sciences of physics, chemistry, sociology geoology, climatology, and geology. The connection between biology and other sciences is listed in the following sections: 5.1. Biochemistry Biochemical processes in living organisms are influenced by the interplay between molecules, atoms, and molecules that comprise living tissues as well as the surrounding within which life occurs e.g. Respiration, Photosynthesis and Digestion. 5.2. Biophysics Biophysics studies life at every scale, from atoms to molecules to cells, organisms , and environments e.g. photosynthesis. Physics is used for Physiology, Bioenergetics, Neurosciences, Pharmacology etc. 5.3. Biogeography studies the distribution of ecosystems and species throughout geographic space and the geological time. Biodiversity and ecological communities tend to change in a consistent pattern along geographical gradients of elevation, latitude and isolation as well as habitat area e.g. Polar bears reside in the Arctic region. 5.4. Biostatistics While the study of biological sciences focuses on living organisms, statistical studies offer a crucial understanding of a variety of biological processes. Basic statistics assist biologists to properly plan experiments, verify conclusions and accurately interpret results. 5.6. Bio-economics Bio-economics is a specialized field of social science which aims to integrate the fields of economics and biology in the pursuit of developing theories that are better at of explaining economic phenomena by using biological principles and the reverse. 6. Careers in Biology Careers that involve a biological aspect that are included in this classification include marine and aqua biologist, conservation biologist, zoo biologist as well as environmental manager and ecologist. Biologists working in these capacities manage recovery programs for endangered species, and offer information to the general public. 6.1. Medicines also known as Surgery Medicine is the field of healing and health. It is comprised of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals. It includes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of illness as well as medical research, among different aspects related to health. The aim of medicine is to support and preserve health and wellbeing. 


6.2. Fisheries Fisheries that are productive, sustainable, and maintainable aquaculture can improve the security of nutrition and food, increase incomes and enhance living conditions, encourage economic growth , and safeguard our natural resources and our environment. Small-scale aquaculture is especially important for addressing the increasing demand for fish 6.3. Agriculture is an that is which is enclosed or utilized to cultivate crops, for example cultivating crops, or for paddocks or any other enclosure for animals. A field could also be an area that is left to fallow, or used as arable land. 


6.4. Animal Sciences A professional education in the field of animal sciences prepares students for job opportunities in fields such as livestock breeding, food production, fiber production as well as animal agriculture, nutrition and welfare of animals. 6.5. Horticulture Horticulture is a art and science of the creation of efficient production of sustainable products, the marketing, and utilization of high-value, extensively cultivated food or ornamental vegetation. The varieties of horticultural plants include perennial and annual species, delicious vegetables and fruits, as well as decorative plants for landscaping and interiors. 6.6. Forestry Forestry is a science and practice of studying the management of plants and forests as well as the natural resources that are related to them. Silviculture is a closely related science that is the cultivation and maintenance of forests and trees. Industrial foresters are most often involved in the planning of timber harvests as well as the forest regeneration. 6.7. Agriculture A farm refers to a piece which is committed predominantly to agricultural processes with the aim of making food crops and other foods and is the primary process for the production of food. The term is often used to describe specialized units like vegetable farms, arable farms and dairy farms, fruit farms, poultry and pig farms, as well as farms that are used to produce of biofuel, natural fibers and other products. It encompasses feedlots, ranches orchards, plantations, estates, smallholdings , and hobby farms, and includes the agricultural and farm buildings and the land. 7. What exactly is Kingdome? Kingdom is a taxonomic classification made up of smaller groups known as phyla (or divisions in plants) Supplement. In general, kingdom is the highest taxonomic rank, or the most commonly used taxon in defining organisms. Five kingdoms are the most common system The five-kingdom system was conceived in 1969 by Robert H. Whittaker in 1969 and was based upon the work of biologists before him like Carolus Linnaeus. Living creatures are divided into five major kingdoms. 1. Kingdom prokaryote Prokaryote is an entity or division within the classification structure that was developed to cover all life on Earth. The kingdom, which is designated as Monera comprises all bacteria and blue-green algae (also called Cyanobacteria). 2. Kingdom Protista or Protoctista It is a kingdom composed of simple eukaryotic organisms that are usually formed of a single cell, or a cluster of cells that are similar. Protists dwell in the water and in terrestrial environments that are moist as parasites as well as other living things in the body of multicellular Eukaryotes. 3. Kingdome Fungi A fungus can be defined as any of the eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms, like molds and yeasts in addition to the more well-known mushrooms. They belong to a specific kingdom that is distinct from other eukaryotic life forms of animals and plants. 4. Kingdome Plantae This kingdom is comprised of the entire range of land plants, including conifers, ferns, mosses and flowering plants, etc. A wide variety of types. With over 250,000 species, they rank second in size , only behind arthropods. The plant kingdom has long been in existence for long period of. 5. Kingdome Animalia All animals are part of Kingdom Animalia which is also known as Metazoa. The Kingdom does not include protokaryotes (Kingdom Monera, includes bacteria blue-green algae) or protists (Kingdom Protista, includes unicellular Eukaryotic organisms). 8. Holy Quran and Biological Science Some of the miracles believed to be within the Quran are “everything from relativity to quantum mechanics Big Bang theory, black holes and pulsarsto embryology, genetics, modern geology, thermodynamicsand even the hydrogen fuel cell. 9. Muslim Scientists and their Contribution Abu Zakariya Yahya Muhammad Ibn Al-Awwanwas the 12th Century Islamic scholar who was based in Seville, Spain, was one of the greatest people to have made a mark on the development of biology, specifically in the agricultural field. 1. Jabir Bin Ayyan Abu Mujad Jabir Ibn Hayyan al-Azdi often referred to as al-Harrani and Al-Sufi is regarded as the founder of Arab Chemistry and is one of the pioneers in modern-day pharmacy. The name was used by Europeans by the name of Geber. The city of his birth was Tus within the Province of Khorasan in Iran in 721 AD. He developed the “quantitative” examination of the properties of substances. He was also the model for Geber who was a Latin alchemist who created an important theory of the corpuscular nature of matter. He wrote Seventy Books and Gold. 2. Abd al Malik Abd alMalik was born in Basrah in 740 C.E. He was a revered Arab and a great scholar of Arabic poetry. Al-Asmai is regarded as an early Muslim scientist to contribute in the fields of Zoology, Botany and Animal Husbandry. 3. Bu Ali Sina Avicenna (Abu Ali Sina) also known as Ibn Sina (980-1037). It was an Persian doctor and philosopher. He was born close to Bukhara which was then the capital city for the Samanid dynasty. When he reached 10 years old , he had studied the Koran and Arabic literature and grammar. A philosopher, he was who wrote The Book of Healing and The Canon. 4. Abu Usman Aljahiz A native of Basrah in Iraq Al-Jahiz was a member of the non-Arabs that comprised the bulk of the intellectual and academic elite in the country. Maybe following a rebellion by the military which killed his friend as well as patron, in the year 861, he went back in a permanent manner to Basrah in Iraq, where he passed away. 5. Al-Farabi Alfarabi had a huge influence on philosophy and science over the course of several centuries and was generally regarded as the second-highest of all Aristotle in terms of knowledge (alluded at by the title “the The Second Teachers”) during his time. His work, which aimed to the synthesis of philosophy and Sufism was the basis in the direction in the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna). 6. Abdul Qasim Ali Zhravi Abdul Qasim Ali Zahravi 936-1013 often referred to by the name Al-Zahrawi was an Arab. Andalusian surgeon, doctor and chemical engineer. He is regarded as the most important surgeon of the Middle Ages He is often referred to as the founder of surgery. His most famous work is Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume index of medical procedures. His pioneering work in medical surgical instruments and procedures have had a profound impact on the East as well as in the West into the present day, and certain of his ideas are used in medical practices until today. It was his first doctor to discover the hereditary origin of haemophilia, and to describe abdominal pregnancy as an ectopic pregnancy subtype which in the early days was an affliction that could be fatal, and was the first physician to pinpoint the root of the paralysis. He also created surgical devices to perform Caesarean section and cataract procedures. 7. Ibn al-Nafis was born in 1213 and spent the majority the rest of his existence in Egypt and witnessed a variety of important events such as the demise of Baghdad and the rise of Mamluks. He was even the personal physician of Sultan Baibars and other notable politicians, thereby establishing his expert among medical professionals. Profession Doctor, Polymath, Physiologist Works published as Theologus Autodidactus 8. Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) He was born around. 965 in an Arab family from Basra, Iraq, which was then one of the Buyid emirate. He was a vizier with the title of vizier in the city of his home town of Basra and earned his name by his expertise in applied math. … In the same period, he also wrote his important Book of Optics 10. A level in Biological organization biological levels of of living organisms, ranging in a range of levels from the simplest to the most complicated such as organelle cells, tissues organ systems, organs communities, organisms and ecosystems. 10.1. Cellular organisation Cellular organization describes the structure of the cell and the way they are organized within it. Organelles are the components that fulfills a specific role essential to the cell. 10.2. Unicellular structure A unicellular organism is an organism comprised of one cell. This means that all living processes, including reproduction eating, digestion, and excretion take place within one cell. Plankton, bacteria, and amoebas are just a few examples of organisms with unicellular cells. They’re typically tiny and are not visible by the naked eye. 10.3. Multicellular The multicellular body creature like a tree or cat has an organization that spans multiple levels of organs, tissues and organs. Similar cells are put into groups of organs, and organs that share a common purpose are put together into organ systems. 10.4. Colonial organization The co-operation among cells from the same species resulted in the creation of multicellular organisms. Multicellular organisms, based on their complexity could be organized into cells, organs, tissues, as well as organ system. Solving a BIOLOGICAL Problm Chapter 2: The scientific method that solves biological issues addressed is called a biological method. 1. Methods of biological research are methods or techniques used to study living creatures. They include computational and experimental methodologies, techniques as well as tools and protocols to conduct biological research. 2. The scientific method consists of six fundamental steps: Recognition of Biological problem Observation and prior research Hypothesis Deduction Experiments Conclusions and Reporting 2.1. Recognizing Biological Problem Formalization of a query relating to a particular issue e.g. What is the most likely risk factors for heart attack. 2.3. Observation and prior research involves gaining insight into the world outside by using our senses, or recording data by using instruments and tools that are scientific. Anything recorded during an experiment could be described as an observation. They are recorded using five senses, including hearing, vision, smell as well as touch. Example : A scientist looking at an chemical reaction during an experiment. A doctor is watching the patient after giving an injection. Astronomer looking up towards the sky at night, and recording information on the brightness and motion of the stars he sees. 2.4. The previous research studies published were distributed in the past, and they reported the findings of research. It could be that the authors tried to test a particular hypothesis, explored the theories of the theory, or attempted to address a specific research issue. 2.5. Hypothesis A suggestion or tentative explanation for a collection of phenomena, a collection of evidence, or an scientific explanation that can be proven, confirmed or resolved through further research or by a methodological study. The most fundamental steps of the scientific method are: 1)) Find an observation which explains an issue,) develop an hypothesis, and then 3) test the hypothesis 4.) Make conclusions and then refine the hypothesis. 2.6. Deduction Deduction is the method of reasoning through which logic-based conclusions are drawn from a general principles. This method is referred to as deduction since research hypotheses are drawn from theories through a process of logic. 2.7. Experimentation Experimental biology refers to the collection of techniques within the field of biology that deal with the conduct of experiments to study and comprehend biological processes. 2.8. Conclusions The conclusions are designed to aid the reader in understanding the importance of your research to them once they have completed reading your paper. The conclusion should not be merely an overview of your ideas or a summary of the research issues, but rather a summary of important elements. 3. A sample of biological techniques are techniques or processes that are employed to study living organisms. They comprise experimental and computational methodologies, techniques to protocols and tools used in research in biology. Biology Problem 1 What is the root cause of malaria? Step 1: Observation physicians and the people of antiquity, about 2000 years ago, were observing malaria. Examples. The patient was afflicted with fevers and chills. ii. This disease is most prevalent among those who lived in low marshy areas. iii. When volunteers were able to drink the marshwater, they didn’t develop malaria. According to the findings, the disease is not spread by drinking the water of marshes. Prior to the discovery, people believed that the immobile water from marshes contaminated the air when people breathed in it and they developed malaria. This observation didn’t aid in solving the issue because the malaria-causing agent is remains unidentified. The history of the disease After about 2000 years, it was discovered that many illnesses result from microorganisms, such as bacteria. Laveran in 1878 carried out the first observation and research. He examined the blood of a malaria patients under microscopes and discovered that microorganisms were present found in blood. Then he recognized the malarial illness as was caused by microorganisms, and He called it the plasmodium. Step 2 Hypothesis and deduction Following that , a biologist was working on an older studies and observations of Lavern. They came up with an hypothesis (Malaria is caused by the plasmodium). In order to test this hypothesis, they conducted tests, biologists made an assumption (if that plasmodium is the reason of malaria, then all malaria patients should have plasmodium within their blood). Step 3: Tests and Results 3. Experiments and Results. The researchers examined blood samples of of 100 malaria patients with a microscope. The group was labeled with the term “experimental group. ii. They also looked at blood samples of healthy individuals under a microscope. It was classified as a control group. The results showed that all malaria patients had the plasmodium present in their blood, while healthy people were unaffected. The study was therefore in support of the idea. Biological Problem #2: What does plasmodium get spread to human beings? It is observed that malaria is linked to the marshes. Drinking marsh water does not cause malaria. C. A King in 1883 listed with 20 additional observations about malaria. The most important points included. Sleepers who sleep in an the open space have suffered more than those who slept indoors. ii. A person who was sleeping near smokey firs did not usually develop malaria. iii. People who used the most mosquito nets been less affected than those who not. The hypothesis and deductive process A.F.A King proposed an hypothesis based on the basis of his observation that if mosquito transmit plasmodium, the plasmodium would be present in mosquitoes. Step 3: Perform experiments and Results The initial was English medical doctor Sir Ronald Ross scrupulous efforts to demonstrate the intricate life cycle of malarial parasite. Then, in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech from 1902, Ross discusses his quest to find both the mosquito species that transmit malaria and the place where parasites reside within the insect tissues. While initially using a number of individuals from the native Indian population for his studies (allowing Ross to demonstrate that mosquitoes that fed on malaria patients had parasites in their tissue) His breakthrough occurred when the lack of human participants required Ross to utilize birds9. Ross was in a position to observe not only the male and female forms of malarial parasites in birds, but also the transfer of parasites fertilized from mosquitoes to birds which fed on them9. Incredibly, Ross wasn’t a trained scientist, but he received a lot of assistance from another renowned malaria researcher. Another revelation that mosquitoes also carry the disease between humans was discovered through Giovanni Grassi and his team of Italian researchers in the last quarter of the 19th century. The method involved putting willing hospital patients into an area with Anopheles and then observing the growth and progress of malaria within the patient the patient. This was a method that similar to that of Grassi’s colleagues. inhumane Experiments on Human beings One of Italian biologists in 1898 permitted Anopheles mosquitos to bite a malaria patient. Then, it was allowed to bite the healthy man. The victim was suffering from malaria. It was also confirmed that plasmodium has been spread by mosquitoes and are involved in the spreading of malaria. What is the definition of theory? It is a deliberate and rational kind of generalizing or abstract thinking about a particular phenomenon or the result of this thinking. The process of thinking in a thoughtful and rational thought is usually connected to such processes as the study of observation and research. What exactly is Law? A law is a declaration about an observed thing or a concept that unifies. What are principles? Principles provide a foundation for the creation of additional laws and rules. Principles and laws define these two concepts across biology, physics, and various other disciplines. Theories are the collection of ideas, concepts, and concepts that explain the observations from the world. Data Organization and Data Analysis Researcher analyze and collect information such as names, dates, values at different stages in scientific processes. The data they collect helps them form hypotheses from observations and draw conclusions from research. To use data for scientific research, scientists must organize and analyze it. Scientists organize data in form of tables, graphs or flow charts or diagrams, maps and. The data collected is then analyzed with the help of statistical techniques like the ratio or proportion. A ratio is a relation in relation to the dimensions between two variables that are of the same type. Pure numbers to a pure number A quantity of money to a certain amount * A quantity of peoples to a certain number of people. * Proportion means to join two ratios that are equal such as a:b = c:d A and d are referred to as extrema * B and are known as the mean The product of extremes is equal to the product of the mean. When three factors in a ratio are known, the fourth (a) can be determined using these rules. Example: A biologist would like to find out how many sparrows could be infected by malaria if he allowed a the mosquito culex to bite 50 sparrows. Prior to one of his studies, he discovered that 6 out of 10 sparrows get malaria after being bitten by the mosquitoes culex. Rules A: B = C: D A: 50 = 6:10 A/50 = 6/10 10 x 10 equals 50 times 6 = 30 Mathematics is an integral component of the scientific process Mathematical principles are used in biology for decades. However, with the advancements in our understanding of biology, the use of mathematical rules throughout all fields of science has grown exponentially. Examples: Population studies Sequencing of plant and animal DNA Each field requires mathematical skills for gathering and analyzing information. BIODIVERSITY Chapter 3 1. Biodiversity This is the abbreviated form of the words biodiversity and diversity. It refers to the different kinds of life present on Earth (plants animals, plants microorganisms, fungi and other microorganisms) and also to the communities create as well as the habitats in the which they dwell. According to biologist , there are over 100 million species of organisms. Biodiversity depends on the climate, altitude and soil structure. The areas in the tropical zone have more diversity, while Polar regions are less diverse. There are 23 000 species of animals and 6000 plants in Pakistan. 1.1 The importance of Biodiversity Biodiversity offer a wide range of food options for humans (crop livestock, forestry as well as fish). They play an important part in the health of humans as well as animals. The use of the fungi, plants and animals for medicines like streptomycin, neomycin and even erythromycin are derived from fungi. medications such as caffeine, morphine, quinine, etc. are derived from plants. It plays a significant part in the manufacturing of industrial products like fibers, building material dyes, resins the adhesive rubber, and oil come from plants. It is an essential component of the ecosystem. The species interact with each other and each species playing a specific role in ecosystem. The loss of species makes ecological systems less effective e.g. water cycle, nitrogen etc. that affect ecosystems. Fertility of soils along with balanced climate and many other characteristics depend on the diversity of the ecosystem. 2. The classification of organisms is nearly 2 million types of organisms recognized by biologists (0.5 million plant species in addition to 1.5 million animal). 2.1. Classification is the process that divides living organisms into groups and subgroups according to resemblances and distinction. 2.2. The basis of classification Aristotle classified organisms on basis of their habitats, which included water, air and land. Although this was not true since animals belonging to one group might have nothing in common other than their environment e.g. turtles and fish cannot be put in the same group as higher grasses and plants cannot be put in the same group. The biologists later classify the organisms according to their physical features. Some of the traits are used to classify species are as follows. Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic cells Unicellular or multicellular Autotrophs and heterotrophs. Prokaryotic organisms that do not have a nucleus e.g. Bacteria. ii. Eukaryotic Organisms with a true nucleus e.g. animals and plants. iii. Unicellular organisms are those that are formed from just 1 cell e.g. Fungi and Bacteria. iv. Multicellular Organisms, which are made out of multiple cells e.g. Plants, animals. Plants. V. autotrophs living organisms who made themselves for their food e.g. plants vi. Heterotrophs Living creatures that are unable to make for their food e.g. animals and fungi 3. Contemporary Classification Nowadays Biologist classify organisms not just by their physical and habitat characteristics but additionally on the basis of anatomy, genetics, and the evolution of their species. 3.1. Objectives of classification The objectives of classification are as follows to determine resemblances and the differences among species so that it’s simple to research. To give a better understanding of the evolutionary process that has led to organisms from simple to complex. To make a precise connection with mutual characteristics. To define and place organisms within a specific group. 3.2. Principles of classification Some basic principles are: Organisms can be classified based on similarities that appear to be apparent between them. Organisms are classified into one group or in a closer group if they have similar structures. Both of anatomical as well as evolutionary background are taken into consideration during classification. 


4. The hierarchy of Taxonomy Defined Taxonomic Hierarchy refers to the process of organizing different organisms into levels that are successive to the classification of biology, either by decreasing order or increasing order , from kingdom to species , and in reverse. Based on the historical background of classification of biological species, Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, classified species based on their environment, traits, etc. Later, the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed Taxonomic Hierarchy Categories during the 18th century, and the system of classification has been used worldwide to date. 4.2. Taxonomic Hierarchy Categories Below are the taxonomic hierarchies according to which organisms are classified. Kingdoms The kingdom represents the most prestigious class, and is broken down into subgroups on different levels. There are five kingdoms within which living creatures are classified. They are, Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera. The phylum is the next stage of classification that is much more precise than kingdom. It has 35 different phyla within the kingdom Animalia. For Example – Porifera, Chordata, Arthropoda, etc. ii. Class The class was the broadest class within the hierarchy of taxonomy prior to when the introduction of phyla. Kingdom Animalia includes 108 classes including class mammalia, reptilia, aves, etc. However, the classes utilized in the present are different from those suggested by Linnaeus and aren’t used often. iii. Order Order is a more specific class. Order Order is a part of more or less than one family that is similar to it. There are about 26 mammalia orders within class including carnivores, primates and so on. iv. Family This taxonomic hierarchy encompasses a variety of genera that have some of the same traits. For eg. The families that belong to the order Carnivora comprise Canidae, Felidae, Ursidae, and so on. The word “v” means. Genus A collection of species that are similar forms one Genus. Certain genera only have one species and are known as monotypic. However certain genera contain more than one species and are referred to as polytypic. For example. the tiger and lion are both classified as Panthera genus. Panthera. vi. The Species is the lowest level in taxonomic hierarchy. There are approximately


8.7 million species of the planet. It is a term used to describe a set of organisms that share similarities in appearance, shape, reproductive traits, and form. The species can further be divided into subspecies. Taxonomic hierarchy of a few of the most common animals and plants. Amoeba Mustard Mushroom Man Kingdom Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Phylum Protozoa Tracheophyta Mycota Chordata Class Sarcodina Angiospermea Basidiomycota Mammalia Order Ameobidales Brassicales Agricales Primates Family Ameobidae Brasicaceae Agricaceae Hominidae Genus Amoeba Brassica Agaricus Homo Species Amoeba proteus Brassica campestris Agaricus compestris Homo sapiens 5. The History of Classification Aristotle (384-322 BC) He was an ancient 4th century Greek philosopher of the 4th century. He separated organisms into two categories, which included plants and animals. 


His method was widely used until the 1600’s. Writers who wrote about plants and animals either utilized their names from different languages, or used more or less standard descriptions. Abu Usman Aljahiz He was born in 776 and published an article on animals Kitab al Hayawan. He explained the features of the 350 species of animals. He also detailed the structure of the social system of Ants. 5.1 Caspar Bauhin (1560-1624) He was the first to take important steps toward the current binomial system utilized by changing several aspects of Latin descriptions into two words. 5.2. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) He was an 18th century Swedish scientist and physician. He classified animals and plants by similarities in their shape and form. He also divided living things into two major kingdoms, which are the animal and plant kingdoms. He identified the animals and plants in Latin or utilized the Latin alphabet in his works Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae (1758). Limitations of the Two Kingdom system of Classification 1. Some organisms share characteristics of both animals as well as plants. For instance, Euglena as well as Sponges. In Euglena some species have chlorophyll and are autotrophic and similar to plants. 


Although they are not as animal-like, they depend on the external supply of vitamins B and B12 that they can’t synthesize on their own. 2. Fungi are an order of organisms with characteristics unique to them. They do not have chlorophyll. They are heterotrophic like animals. They are planted all over with plants of green. 3. The majority of primitive bacteria and microorganisms didn’t fit into any of the groups. Those that are like slime molds, are amoeboid. They produce fruiting bodies similar to fungi. 4. The nature of viruses, whether they are living and living remains a matter of debate now. 5.3. Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) He was capable of observing microscopic single-celled organisms . He suggested a third realm of life called Protista in 1866. Protista were single-celled organisms which were neither plant nor animal, but may have traits of either.

 5.4. Herbert Faulkner Copeland (1902-1968) He was aware of the significant distinction between single-celled eukaryotes and single-celled prokaryotes. He proposed a classification for four kingdoms and placed the blue-green algae and bacteria (prokaryotes) in the fourth kingdom called Monera. 5.5. Robert Harding Whittaker (1920-1980) He developed the five kingdom system in the year 1969. He understood that fungi belonged in their respective kingdoms. Yet, even today, the five-kingdom system is in controversy. The nature of scientific research is when new discoveries are brought to light theories will continue be developed and refined. 5.6. Margulis and Schwartz (1988) The changes proposed in Margulis as well as Schwartz and Whittaker’s model was that they proposed five kingdoms of living organisms. They classified the earth’s ecological distribution into five distinct entities, which are called Plantae, Protista, Animalia, Monera and Fungi. Monera Monera is a kingdom. Monera Monera is a kingdom comprised of unicellular organisms having an organization of prokaryotic cells (having the absence of a nuclear membrane) including bacteria. They are single-celled creatures with no real nuclear membrane (prokaryotic organisms).


 The characteristics of these organisms are that they are generally unicellular organisms (but one is mycelial). The genetic material found in these organisms is pure circular DNA. The nuclear envelope is not present. Simple Chroophores are the only organelles that are subcellular in the cells. Sap vacuoles do not occur. However, gas vacuoles could exist. The most common method that nutrition occurs is through absorption, however certain categories are also photosynthetic (holophytic) and chemically synthesized. They are not mobile or move through simple flagella or by sliding the Kingdome Protista Kingdom Protista is home to the protists or all organisms that are not able to belong to the different kingdoms that live. Protists are heterotrophic, and autotrophic. They can be moveable immovable single celled and single or members of colonies. The characteristics