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This paper critiques a fungus – mushrooms. In this paper, identification, cultivation, makes use of, aspect results, dietary and medicinal values, storage, advertising and marketing and different uses of mushrooms were discussed. From the evaluation too it become discovered that its usefulness surpasses the facet results. These facet consequences can be removed if right ‘processing’ may want to be hired. Due to advances in each basic information and realistic technology applicable to mushroom farming, mushroom products and mushroom bioremediation, developing international locations have to harness the potentials of mushrooms as this would improve the sales profits and wholesome living. It is hoped that this paper would upload to existing records on this fungus. The organisms of the fungal lineage encompass mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, muffins, morels, and yeasts, as well as many much less widely known organisms (Blackwell et al, 2011).

 More than 700, 00 species of fungi were described however, some estimates of overall numbers indicates that 1.Five million species may also exist (James et al, 2006). Edible mushroom (Figs 1 & 2) have for a long term been identified no longer most effective as a delicacy, but additionally for their use as meals in man’s diets. Mushrooms have been discovered to be wealthy assets of protein, lipids, amino acids, glycogen, nutrients and mineral factors (Okhuoya et al., 2010). According to Rambeli (1983), the mineral salt content of mushrooms is superior to that of meat and fish and nearly twice that of the maximum not unusual vegetables. Nigeria is a country of many tribes, the Hausa inside the North, Yoruba within the West, Urhobo in the Mid – West and the Ibo in the East, to say a few. Each tribe has diagnosed mushrooms for decades, and the human beings have made use of a number of them economically of their day by day life. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

The Yorubas have diagnosed mushrooms for decades as in fungi have always played an important position of their regular life. They have descriptive Yoruba names for his or her species of mushrooms in addition to legendary memories and ideals, which give an explanation for the origin of some of them. These myths and beliefs sometimes play a function in determining which of the mushrooms are fit for human consumption and which of them may be used for clinical purposes through the Yoruba local doctors. The nutritional and medicinal values of mushrooms have lengthy been recognized. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. In recent instances, however, mushrooms have assumed extra importance inside the diets of both rural city dwellers. For example, they may be being advertised along major highways and urban centers in which the exchange now booms. It is viable that the elevated demand for mushrooms is contingent upon the exceptional rise within the unit charges of the traditional sources of meat (e.G red meat, beef, bird, and so on). 

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Edible mushrooms had been located into 5 categories in step with the derivation in their names, viz., the ones named consistent with the taste, morphology, boom dependancy, texture, and habitat (Oso, 1975). Examples in each class are: taste (Volvariella volvacea, Volvariella esculenta Yor. Ogiri agbe) Termitomyces clypeatus (Yor. Takete): Morphology (Termitomyces manniformis) (Yor. Rooro) Termitomyces robustus (Yor.Ewe) Schizophyllum commue Fr (Yor. Ese-adie) Agrocyber broadway (Murr) (Yor. Gunnugu); growth addiction (Termitomyces globulus, Pleurotus tuber-reguim) (Yor. Olu); texture (Pleurotus squarrouslus) (Yor. Erirokiro), Psathyrella atroumbonata (Yor.Wowo); habitat (Francolimus bicalcaratus) (Yor.Isoaparo). In addition to the above, the natives have observed the growth of many fungi on one-of-a-kind styles of lifeless wood and have named every fungus after the wood on which it grows. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Besides the safe to eat mushrooms, the natives also understand a few poisonous or none safe to eat fungi a few of which can be indexed here. Coprinus africans (Yor. Ajeimutin), Phallus aurantiacus, Phallus industiatus, Phallus rubicundus and Mutinus bambustnus (Yor.Akufodewa), Celtis zenkeri (Yor.Asa-ita), Coprinus enphemerus (Yor.Olu-gbongaga). There has been a latest upsurge of hobby in mushrooms now not most effective as a fitness vegetable (food) which is rich in protein however also as a source of biologically lively compounds of medicinal cost. Uses include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, immunopotentiating, hypocholesterolemic, and hepatoprotective sellers. This new class of compounds, termed mushroom nutriceuticals are extractable from both the mushroom mycelium or fruiting body and represent an essential factor of the expanding mushroom biotechnology enterprise. 

It has been proven that regular consumption of either mushrooms or mushroom nutriceuticals (nutritional dietary supplements) can make humans fitter and healthier. In addition, mushroom cultivation also can help to transform agricultural and forest wastes into beneficial depend and decrease pollution inside the environment. Therefore, mushroom cultivation can make three vital contributions: production of fitness food, manufacture of nutriceuticals, and reduction of environmental pollutants. Mushrooms are among the largest fungi, which have attracted the eye of naturalists earlier than microscopes, or maybe simple lenses had concept of. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Mushrooms date back to antiquity and are even associated with some past. For instance, the Romans attributed the appearance of mushrooms and desserts to lightning hurled by Jupiter to the earth. Even, the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala consider that the appearance of certain mushrooms which include the “fly agaric” Amanita muscaria is correlated with a courting between thunder, lightning and the earth. 

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CEREMONIAL USES OF MUSHROOMS For centuries, a few mushrooms have been utilized in religious ceremonies of many ancient people and primitive tribes. Mushrooms are believed by the Romans to have houses that might produce wonderful human electricity, help in locating misplaced objects and lead the soul to the area of the gods (Grube et al., 2001). Here in Nigeria, the people of Ohia, in Abia State at some stage in one in all their gala’s eat the fungi (Lebo, 2004). CULTIVATION OF MUSHROOMS As a group, mushrooms arise in distinct parts of the sector, ranging from arctic to the tropics. While a few species occur handiest in confined areas, others exist in regions which can be extensively separated geographically. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. However, maximum species seem to expose a preference for a sure kind of habitat. Some are, for instance, located more often than not in upland wooded areas; others exist in swamps and nevertheless others prefer open areas such as gardens, lawns or pasture e.

G Pleurotus tuber-regium. Many species specifically the mycorrhizal paperwork are associated with sure varieties of vegetations. Within a sure habitat, mushrooms might also show a preference for a selected substratum. Basidiocarps of a few are usually produced on the soil and are normally referred to as terrestrial forms. Others are discovered on useless leaves (follicolous) or litter e.G Cortinarius melliolens and Tricholoma lobayensis, on timber (lignicolous) e.G Lentinus edodes or on dung (corpophilous) e.G Coprinus lagopus. A few develop on nasidiocarps of different mushrooms and are termed fungicolus. Mushrooms are mostly found on wastes which includes sawdust, garbages and composting substances (Gbolagade et al., 2006). Statemet (2001) referred to that lawn mushrooms had been propagated from fermented horse dung and wet litter all of the yr round. Miles and Chang (2004) deduced from the proof supplied in various early courses, that mushroom cultivation began in France about 1630, seeing that then, collection of studies were carried out to reveal different increase parameters in each natural and pure culture. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Compositing development turned into measured by changes in temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and potential of compost top guide increase of mushroom mycelia.Growth of mushroom became found to take place over a wide range of pH, i.E pH three.Four – pH 9.0 (Adebayo et al., 2009). The investigation done on Coprinus cinerus and Volvariella volvacea in courting to pH showed that a drop in pH stronger the increase of C. Cinerus even as impartial pH favors V. volvacea. A combination of circumstance including temperature, pH, mild, bodily houses of subtraction and proportion of dietary factors have impact at the growth of mycelia as well as production of fruiting bodies. During mycelia growth on their substrate, mushroom produce a number of enzymes which breakdown complex natural compounds which include cellulose and lignin into soluble production, which might be absorbed through the hyphae. Different styles of mushrooms have been qualitatively tested for their capability to hydrolyse starch. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

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Kuforiji and Fasidi, (2008) proved that Lentnus adodes mycelia are regarded to develop on diverse agar media and liquid cultures. Composts supplemented with organic material containing nutrition B-complicated had been claimed to beautify greater yield of mushroom. The popular pattern carbon source usage of Agaricus bisporus is comparable most of the numerous reports notwithstanding vast distinction in lines, time and area of examine. Generally glucose, fructose and xylose are mentioned as exact carbon sources. All fungi require a nitrogen supply. Investigations at the effect of several environmental factors on mushroom both independently and in exceptional conditions had been done by way of Adenipekun and Fasidi, (2005); Kuforiji and Fasidi, (2007); Ukoima et al., (2009a & b). Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. They determined out that a mixture of situation which includes temperatures, pH, bodily houses of substratum of percentage of dietary factors have impact at the growth of mycelia. Mycelia are produced as a result of spore germination. 

It is the fruit frame that attracts the attention of mushroom hunters because it’s far fleshy and additionally extra conspicuous. Lots of researches had been executed in Nigeria. Some of the works encompass cultivation on sawdust of different flora (Okhuoya (1998); Gyar and Ogbonna (2006); Kuforiji and Fasidi, (2008), agricultural and agro commercial wastes (Fasidi and Kadiri, (1993); Adenipekun and Fasidi (2005); Ayodele and Okhuoya (2007); Kuforiji and Fasidi, (2007); Onuoha et al. (2009); Ukoima et al. (2009), cotton waste and cassava peel (Adebayo et al. 2009) and way of life media (Ukoima et al. 2009). Elsewhere, examples of the exceptional formulas for spawn substrates are: Mother grain spawn: (i) Wheat/rye grain C 1.Five% gypsum or slaked lime. (ii) Cotton seed hull 40%, sawdust 38%, wheat bran 20%, sugar 1%, and gypsum 1%. (iii) Sugar cane bagasse 40%, sawdust 38%, wheat bran 20%, sugar 1%, and gypsum 1%. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Planting spawn: A range of materials, ordinarily agricultural and forest wastes, can be used to put together mushroom planting spawn. 

Three of them are given right here as examples: sawdust seventy eight%, rice/wheat bran sixteen%, sugar 1.Five%, corn flour 1.7%, ammonium sulphate 0.3%, calcium superphosphate 0.Five%, and gypsum 2%; sawdust 64%, wheat bran 15%, spent coffee grounds 20%, and gypsum/lime 1%; and sawdust seventy eight%, sucrose 1%, wheat bran 20%, and calcium carbonate 1%.(Chang, 2008). Apart from cultivation from wastes, there’s the mushroom industry. Mushroom enterprise may be taken into consideration to be composed of cultivated edible mushrooms, medicinal mushrooms, and wild mushrooms (Chang, 2006). According to the Training guide on Mushroom Cultivation Technology, (2008), there are benefits of mushrooms cultivation, those are highlighted beneath: 1. Wastes such as cereal straws are largely burnt by the farmers, which causes air pollutants. However, those uncooked substances can really be used for the cultivation of mushrooms.

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This type of bioconversion exercise can substantially reduce environmental pollutants. 2. It serves as way of generating employment, particularly for rural ladies and youths to be able to enhance their social fame. 3. It offers the human beings with an extra vegetable of high first-rate, and increase the weight-reduction plan with high best proteins, minerals and vitamins which can be of direct benefit to the human health and health. The extractable bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms would decorate human’s immune structures and improve their exceptional of lifestyles. 4. Mushroom cultivation is a cash crop. It improves monetary standards of the human beings some heat mushrooms, e.G. Volvariella volvacea (Straw mushrooms) and Pleurotussajor-caju (Oyster mushrooms) are especially rapid growing organisms and may be harvested in three to 4 weeks after spawning. It is a quick go back agricultural commercial enterprise and can be of on the spot benefit to the network. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

IDENTIFICATION Macroscopic structure of mushrooms should be understood earlier than identity can be made. Most of them are Basidiomycetes and gilled. Their spores referred to as basidiospores are produced at the gills and fall in a exceptional rain of powder from under the caps as a end result. At the microscopic level the basidiospore are brief off basisia and then falls between the gills inside the lifeless air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and positioned gill – side – down in a single day, a powdery affect reflecting the shape of the gills is formed. The color of the powdery print, known as a spore print is used to help classify mudrooms and might help to pick out them. Spores prints colorations include white, brown, black, pink-brown, crimson, yellow and cream, but nearly by no means blue, green, or purple. A good reference cloth, usually a ebook with colour, snap shots of the distinctive mushrooms recognised, is a primary requirement. A key is typically provided to simplify identity in maximum reference texts (Carlucccio, (2003); Fuhrer, (2005). 

In the use of the reference, it is crucial that one is aware of a few specific characteristics of the mushroom being recognized. These traits are (1) size, shade, and consistency of the cap and the stalk; (2) mode of attachment of the gills to the stalk; (3) spore shade in mass; and (four) chemical assessments or reactions. There isn’t any unmarried reference paintings in which all mushrooms are illustrated or defined. In maximum cases, mushroom species in guides are grouped by means of location or locality, for example, North American mushrooms, mushrooms of the Western Hemisphere, mushrooms of South Africa and people discovered in Nigeria. While positive mushrooms are easy to perceive, many are not. In truth, there are a brilliant number of appearance-alikes. To keep away from any unpleasant reviews, especially when identifying mushrooms for the reason of figuring out edibility, experts have to usually be consulted. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

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NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF MUSHROOMS Edible mushrooms are essential assets of meals. They shape very nourishing meals mainly for invalids, for they’re effortlessly digestible. They are fed on no longer handiest for their innate flavour and taste, however also for his or her vital dietary value. On sparkling weight basis mushrooms are advanced in protein content material (Aremu et al., 2009) to all vegetables and fruits, but are not as good as meat and dairy merchandise, which are the conventional protein resources. On dry-weight foundation, however, mushrooms are similar with admire to dried-yeast and advanced to dried peas and beans. The nutrient content material varies from species and depends on their increase requirement. Mushrooms have a high percent of water 93-95% compared to analyze beef (70%) and clean veggies (92%).Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. They also incorporate valuable minerals along with iron, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and copper, 56% carbohydrate, 30% protein, 2% fat and also 10% ash on dry weight basis. 

They are also wealthy in nutrition B and diet D. Mushrooms provide a excessive protein and occasional caloric weight loss program and might as a consequence be recommended to coronary heart sufferers. They also incorporate all the vital amino-acid required with the aid of an adult (Koyyalamudi et al., 2009). Tryptophan and lysine are present in excessive concentrations as compared to cystein and methionine. Mushrooms is mentioned to be an outstanding supply of riboflavin and nicotinic acid; an excellent source of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid (Ukpebor et al., 2007). The carbohydrate and fats contents of fit to be eaten mushrooms are quite low. The absence of starch in mushrooms makes it a really perfect food for diabetic sufferers and for men and women who desires to shed excess fat. Edible mushrooms referred to as the beef of the vegetable international (Haas and James, 2009) may be organized into a lot of scrumptious dishes and as flavours for different dishes. 

Among the Nigerian mushroom dishes are mushrooms with vegetable, mushroom with vegetable and melon soup, mushroom in okro soup, and mushroom in stew. These soups are used to devour a variety of meals. Some human beings use mushrooms rather for meat in their stews There is proof that intake of plant ingredients which includes culmination and vegetables, provide protection in opposition to various sicknesses, particularly persistent degenerative sicknesses (Selvi et al (2007).Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. This safety can be defined through the unfastened –radical scavenging capability of antioxidants in plant meals. Plant foods are an awesome supply of polyphenols, which have been mentioned to be effective radical scavenger and inhibitors of liquid peroxidation (Makam and Konig, 2001). Kettawan et al., (2011) and Selvi et al (2007) have proven that mushrooms include antioxidants. Apart from their nutritive values, mushrooms also have ability medicinal benefits in particular as antitumour. 

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Abulude, (2005); Kuforiji and Fasidi, (2008) and Kettawan et al., (2011) elaborated on the medicinal uses of Pleurotus tuber-regium in Nigeria. The said that these mushrooms can be used in aggregate with other herbs as elements to care ailments such as chest ache, cold, dropsy, fever, headache, smallpox and belly pains. The low carbohydrate content of mushrooms makes it a great food for diabetics and those w1ho intend to govern their frame weight. SIDE EFFECTS OF MUSHROOMS Mushrooms can also reason sickness, decay and destruction in their look for meals, Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.when you consider that they have no chlorophyll, they have to achieve organic cloth in prepared shape, for example, Armillaria mellea “Honey fungus” reasons severe damage to ramiferous tress and might assault shrubs or even herbaceous plants such as potatoes, and strawberries (Lange and Hora, 1963). Cultivation of mushrooms on business scale is new to many growing nations of which Nigeria is one. This truth is due to the scantiness of records on the boom requirement of many indigenous mushrooms. 

In Nigeria, there are masses of commercial and agricultural wastes that can serve as capacity source of raw fabric for business cultivation of mushroom at minimal cost. Ita et al,(2008) of their observe on bioaccumulation potential of heavy metals in sporocarps from Niger Delta region of Nigeria, found out that certain mushrooms collect heavy metals. The gathering potentials are affected by the species, substrate composition, age of mycelium and durations among fructifications. Studies on metals in mushrooms have shown a correlation among fungal metals awareness and factor resources of metal pollutants (Isildak et al, 2004; Gyar and Ogbonna, 2006). Human activities had been mentioned to effect negativity on arable lands contaminating them with insecticides, petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and waste engine oil pollution, and consequently causing arable land scarcity and different environmental challenges (Okhuoya et al, 2010; Oghenekaro et al, 2008). 

These demanding situations can also exert bad impact which include kidney damage, impairment of circulatory, reproductive and apprehensive device damage (Abulude et al, 2004) on man and animals when ate up (Ita et al, 2008). Apart from the side results, Mushroom mycelia can produce a group of complex extracellular enzymes that could degrade and utilize the lignocellulosic wastes which will reduce pollutants. It has been revealed lately that mushroom mycelia can play a extensive function within the healing of damaged environments. Saprotrophic, endophytic, mycorrhizal, and even parasitic fungi/mushrooms can be utilized in mycorestoration, which may be completed in 4 exclusive approaches: mycofiltration (the use of mycelia to filter out water), mycoforestry (using mycelia to restore forests), mycoremediation (using mycelia to put off poisonous waste), a nd mycopesticides (the use of mycelia to manipulate insect pests). Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

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These methods represent the capacity to create a easy environment, wherein no harm can be left after fungal implementation (Training Manual on Mushrooms cultivation, 2008). STORAGE OF MUSHROOMS At the put up-harvest stage, mushrooms need to be stored in clean condition to keep their characteristics and taste, some common renovation methods are enumerated under which growth the shelf lifestyles of harvested mushrooms. Storage in 0.02-zero.03mm dense polythene bags with nitrogen at 00C is equal to five weeks of shelf existence; storage at 500C will provide the mushroom a shelf existence of 4 weeks even as storage at 150C beneath the identical situation will keep the fungi for 2 weeks. It is noted that garage in controlled ecosystem of 9% oxygen and 25% carbon-dioxide; maintenance with the aid of gamma-radiation will hold mushroom for 10 days. Mushrooms also can be freeze-dried. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Dehydration, grinding and garage in an air tight box can also be employed. The saved powder can be used for making mushroom soup, mushrooms can be treated and canned (Roy, 1984). MARKETING About 160,000 metric lots of mushrooms are produced yearly in Japan, half of of that’s dried and exported. It represents a two billion greenbacks industry which employs about 2 hundred,000 human beings (Anderson and Marconiller, 2006). Worldwide, the commercial enterprise is really worth thousands and thousands of pounds annually, for the countries of Eastern Europe specifically, wild mushrooms are valuable exports. Poland and France are of the important exporters of mushrooms. In a announcement from Allbusiness.Com (2003), China is the sector’s biggest edible mushroom manufacturer. The country produces about half of of all cultivated mushrooms, and round 2.7 kilograms of mushrooms are ate up in step with man or woman in line with year through over 1000000000 human beings. 

Authoritative source from Spore (2006) found out economically, mushrooms growers’ affiliation in Uganda bought 44 heaps according to 12 months to Japan, forty lots to america and a pair of tons to the Democratic Republic of Congo. According to Olubanjo et al, 2006 in Nigeria, the commercial manufacturing and change s nevertheless in its infancy. They attributed this to terrible underdeveloped nature of demand for fit for human consumption, nearby and cultivated extraordinary mushrooms. To increase the mushroom advertising, regular advertisement to create recognition, suitable garage and packaging should be ensured. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Good garage and fee addition by means of processing and canning can solve the hassle of seasonality in availability (Olubanjo et al, 2006). Gradually, mushrooms are earnings generating. MEDICINAL VALUE Medicinal mushrooms are mushrooms, or mushroom extracts, which might be used or studied as viable remedies for illnesses. 

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Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Grifola frondosa (maitake), and Ganoderma lucidum (reishi), have a records of medicinal use spanning millennia in elements of Asia. Medicinal mushroom studies has indicated viable cardiovascular, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic sports (Lentinan, 2009). In Nigeria blessings of mushrooms consisting of the vitamins, medicinal and mythological makes use of were reviewed (Akpaja et al., 2005; Osemwegie et al., 2006). Even Labarere and Menini (2000) recounted that the makes use of of mushroom genetic assets aren’t simplest of high interest in agronomy, agriculture, human food and animal feed however also for the invention, production and improvement of molecules or additives with excessive delivered fee in industries which includes chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Some mushrooms materials, which include polysaccharide, glycoprotein and proteoglycens, modulate immune device responses and inhibit tumor boom. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Currently, several extracts have wide spread use in Japan, Korea, and China, as adjuncts to radiation remedies and chemotherapy (Smith et al, 2002; Borchers et al, 2008). Mushrooms that have psychoactive substances were used as sacraments for healing (Mental and physical) (Hudler 2000). Certain mushrooms, especially polypores like Reishi were notion so that you can gain a wide kind of health ailments (Sarfaraz et al, 2009). Ogbe et al., (2008), in a studies carried out, they determined accessible had been enhancements of egglaying and sickness resistant capacity of birds when they used Ganoderma species. Betaglucan based totally nutritional dietary supplements of mushroom origin are powerful for the remedy of Buruli ulcer due to Mycobacterium ulcerans in Ghana even as Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.) Karst. Tested in separate have a look at for the treatment of Eimeria tenella inflamed broiler chickens in Nigeria (Okhuoya et al., 2010). OTHER USES According to Wikipedia, the loose encyclopedia (2011), mushrooms have been used for dyeing timber and other herbal fibers. 

The chromosphores of mushroom dyes are natural compound and bring strong and vivid hues, and all shades of the spectrum can be finished with mushrooms dyes. Dyes from them had been the source of many dyes before the artificial ones (Mussak and Bechtold 2009). In the United States, and other evolved countries, mushrooms were used as hearth starters. They have also been implemented via Ecovative design LLC to provide biodegradable packaging. Presently, they play a function within the improvement of recent organic remediation techniques and filtration technologies (Wikipedia, 2011) Mushrooms are used as gun powder (Akpaya et al., 2005) Mushroom: Cultivation and ProcessingINTRODUCTION Mushrooms are one of the most cherished food now not best for its exotic flavor but also for the blessings with which it comes. It can be fed on in diverse bureaucracy like clean, pickled, dried, powdered, canned and so forth. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Its farming has picked up a quick pace among contemporary marketers owing to its dietary and medicinal blessings and coffee fee input with high output. 

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Mushrooms are a fleshy fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) having a stem, cap and gills beneath the cap [1]. They can be safe to eat, wild and some of them may be poisonous too. It carries greater than ninety% water and less than 1% fat, loaded with Vitamin B, copper and selenium and occasional in sodium [1]. Usually greens, milk and other meals merchandise are fortified with Vitamin D by means of irradiation or direct addition however mushrooms are precise on this feel due to the fact they’re certainly a rich source of Vitamin D which otherwise is procured from animals or fowl [2]. The reason being that it consists of copious amount of plant sterol “Ergosterol”. It is a precursor of Vitamin D which when stimulated by means of sunlight or artificial lightening supply converts to Vitamin D [3]. Table 1 offers the details of dietary cost of Agaricus bisporus (White Button Mushrooms) [1, 4-6]. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

TYPES OF MUSHROOMS Mushrooms are easily cultivable in hilly areas due to plentiful moisture however can also be grown in synthetic environment with proper temperature and humidity manipulate. Varieties have to be diagnosed very well as some is generally grown in India [5]. Accordingto ICAR – Directorate of Mushroom Research, this range contributes more than eighty five% to mushroom production [7]. It is the most relished range utilized in eateries and households. Shiitake Mushroom Shiitake Mushrooms are native to East Asia and are noticeably fed on in Asian international locations. They without problems grow on wood of deciduous and difficult wooden trees together with Oak, Chestnut, and Maple and many others. And require moist and heat weather. In rare cases they’ll motive allergic response like itching however can be removed by way of thorough cooking. These are utilized in Asian cuisines and conventional drugs [8, 9]. Oyster Mushroom Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) belongs to Pleurotus species. 

It is referred to as “Dhingri” in India and has fan or oyster formed cap [10]. They grow without difficulty on decaying wood or straw [11]. Paddy Straw Mushroom Volvariella volvacea belongs to department Basidiomycota. It is normally grown on Rice straw bed and is used significantly in Asian Cuisines [12]. CULTIVATION The basic requirements for mushroom cultivation are manure/compost, spawns, proper temperature and humidity. Favorable growing situations contain 80%- ninety% of relative humidity, sufficient ventilation, a temperature variety of 20-280 C throughout spawn run and 12-a hundred and eighty C for reproductive increase. Initially for every week temperature must be maintained at 23 ± 20 C after which it may be reduced to 16 ± 20 C for subsequent weeks. The CO2 concentration have to be 0.08-0.15 % [13]. If the above stated situations are maintained as it should be the pin heads begin to appear within few days and step by step mature into button stage. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

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Apart from these pesticides, dietary dietary supplements like nitrogen, vermiculite, water also are required for a wholesome harvest. The following steps are to be followed for mushroom cultivation: Compost Preparation The compost (synthetic or herbal) used for mushroom boom usually incorporates of wheat straws, horse manure, chicken manure, rice bran, gypsum and many others. [14, 15]. Utmost care is taken to shield the raw compost towards rain or external moisture, as it’d introduce unwanted microbes. The chopped wheat straws or rice bran are combined with horse dung, sprinkled with water and are heaped in a pile to allow fermentation. The fermentation system at the side of warmness development breaks down the chemical substances in small additives. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Frequent turnings and watering is done at a specific c language if you want to keep away from the drying up of compost. Gypsum is every so often delivered to the compost to reduce greasiness and permit greater aeration [16]. 

Within 15 to twenty days the compost gets all set to be used as mattress, it’s far then spread onto wood trays and sowed with spawns [14-16]. Spawning Spawns refers to the mycelium cautiously propagated on agars or grains. Spawning is a procedure of sowing or mixing spawns in compost. Although mushroom produces spores which acts as a seed for similarly propagation but are not used normally due to uncertain germination and boom [17]. The spawns are thoroughly mixed with the compost, are blanketed with newspaper and is watered sufficiently to hold the moisture. Throughout the cultivation period humidity is kept excessive to avoid lack of moisture. Gradually they develop into white cottony mycelium increase [14-18]. Casing Casing is a kind of sterilized soil or dressing containing cow manure that is unfold onto the spawn blended compost. It is applied when the mycelium increase commences on the compost surface. After 15 to 20 days of its application mushroom head or pins begin becoming seen at the floor. 

They are allowed to mature for a particular time period and are harvested before establishing of the cap. Mushrooms with opened cap (seems like an umbrella after starting of cap) are unwanted and are taken into consideration of menial fine [14-16]. HARVESTING Harvesting is achieved with the aid of plucking them from soil using palms or the heads are chopped off using knife. The harvested mushrooms are then subjected to primary processing. PROCESSING Mushroom are very fragile and have a quick shelf life, until consumed sparkling. At ambient temperature Mushroom: Cultivation and Processing International Journal of Food Processing Technology, 2018, Vol. 5, No. 2 11 they lose their freshness within an afternoon and deteriorates swiftly if now not processed or refrigerated. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. They also tend to brown due to presence of compound Tyrosinase. It converts monophenols to diphenols which in flip are oxidized to quinones resulting inside the formation of insoluble brown pigment called Melanin [7]. 

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Initial processing includes washing mushrooms to get rid of adhering soil or compost and blanching them for short time to inactivate the enzymes. In order to prevent discoloration they’re dealt with with brine, salt or citric acid prior to canning or packaging. Following are the common processing and renovation techniques used: Drying Drying or Dehydration is the oldest and the basic processing method for various meals merchandise. Moisture is the most appropriate medium for the microbial increase and propagation, hence its removal will purpose the microbial interest to cease or emerge as sluggish. Mushrooms may be dried either by solar drying or by means of mechanical drying. Sun drying is the cheapest and famous technique but it produces a miles darker product [19]. Mechanical drying is rapid and is of various sorts like Tray drying, Freeze drying, Vacuum drying, Microwave oven drying, Air drying and so on. Dried mushrooms may be rehydrated and are used in soups, stews, pickles etc. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Freezing As mushrooms comprise greater than ninety% water hencefreezing is the most suitable method for protection. They are subjected to numerous pretreatments to reduce unfavourable outcomes upon freezing. According to Czapski and Szudyga (2000) colour of Agaricus bisporus is higher whilst treated with metabisulphites along with blanching [20]. Blast freezing approach is usually employed at temperature -25˚ C to – 30˚ C (Sobkowska and Wozniak 1974, Czapski and Szudyga 2000) [20]. According to Kondratowicz and Kowalko (2000) Cryogenic freezing extends mushroom’s shelf lifestyles as much as 12 months while used at – eighty˚ C to – 100˚ C for five-6 minutes [20]. Sterilization Sterilization of mushrooms may be achieved by means of the usage of chemical compounds, steam or with the aid of irradiation. According to Kashif Akram and Joong-Ho Kwon (2010) the shelf existence of mushrooms may be prolonged via applying a radiation dose of one – three kGy. Canning Canning involves protection in brine, vinegar, oil or marinades [19]. 

Freshly harvested mushrooms are applied for canning reason. They are cleaned, graded, blanched after which crammed into cans along with brine or vinegar accompanied by means of lidding [19]. The cans are then exhausted to remove air, warmth sterilized, cooled, labelled and packaged for storage or consumption [7, 20]. Pickling Pickling is an age vintage approach which makes use of spice, salt, vinegar and oil because the basic substances for food renovation [19]. Pickled mushrooms are made the usage of spices such as turmeric, pink chilli, garlic, clove alongside with salt and oil [19]. Pickling induces fermentation which generates a slight taste [20]. DISCUSSION Mushrooms are adaptable fungi which yields masses of dietary and health blessings. It may be grown on decomposed rely easily with true yield. They are herbal source of nutrition D. There are masses of sorts consisting of fit to be eaten as well as wild. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. The generally consumed sorts are Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake mushroom, Oyster mushroom and Paddy Straw mushroom. 

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Mushroom cultivation require eighty-ninety% relative humidity and temperature range of sixteen˚ C – 23˚ C [13]. The cultivation starts with compost preparation observed through spawning, casing, harvesting and processing. Mushroom being fragile and perishable commodity requires processing after harvesting. The processing can be achieved in various methods such as drying, dehydration, freeze drying, pickling, freezing, canning, sterilization, direct packaging and so forth. CONCLUSION Mushrooms are one of the most popular and versatile present of nature. It can be mixed into any food arrangements or can be processed to offer a new product. A lot of mushroom merchandise are currently available in market which include mushroom pickle, seasonings, drinks, extracts, dried and canned mushrooms, mushroom dietary supplements, cosmetics and so on. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Apart from the mushroom food products many progressive products are emerging in different industries as nicely including mushroom primarily based constructing substances, drugs, mycelium primarily based systems, biodegradable packaging, mycelium based totally leather and so forth. 

Mushrooms 12 International Journal of Food Processing Technology, 2018, Vol. 5, No. 2 Kratika Sharma are smooth to cultivate, have short boom and zero carbon emission and waste era. The fungi is a good supply of income era for the growers and additionally gives extra blessings thru its processing. Hence mushrooms holds a vivid destiny in every thing due to its various properties.Mushrooms are wonderful sculptors created by using nature. Thomas carlyl rightly expressed this as “Nature on my own is antique and the oldest art a mushroom”. For lots of years fungi in general and mushrooms particularly have evoked combined reaction of adulation as expressed via John Ford “I am… A mushroom; On whom the dew of heaven drops now after which” to fear and loath. Culturally mushrooms have been an fundamental part of historic Greek, Indian, Mesoamerican, Mayan and Egyptian cultures. Mushrooms have been used for food, medication and euphoric reviews to poisoning gear through the use of deadly Amanita. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong.

Scientifically Mushrooms have been part of fungal range for round 300 million years. The Western lifestyle was largely ignorant about the usage of mushrooms and often termed as ‘mycophobic’. Mushrooms had been largely collected from wild for meals and medicine, a practice nonetheless prevalent many of the human beings dwelling near forests. Wild mushrooms are an essential factor of woodland merchandise and international change. The earliest report of mushroom cultivation dates returned to A.D. Six hundred, while the Jelly mushroom (Auricularia auricula) changed into first cultivated by using Chinese on wooden logs. This changed into the stepping stone for the experiments to cultivate different wood inhabiting mushrooms like Flammulina velutipes (A.D.800); a delicacy in Japan until date and Lentinula edodes (A.D. A thousand); the most trendy fit to be eaten and medicinal mushroom of present day instances. It is envisioned that approximately 1.5 million species of fungi inhabit earth out of which 1,40,000 species are labeled as mushrooms. 

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Among the 14,000 recognised mushroom species, 7000 species are taken into consideration to have various degree of edibility and extra than 3000 species of mushrooms of 31 genera are acknowledged to be prim fit for human consumption mushrooms. To date, 200 mushroom species are experimentally grown, a hundred specie economically cultivated, 60 commercially cultivated and 10 have reached business popularity. Further, 2000 mushroom species are regarded as medicinal mushrooms with a variety of fitness attributes. The wide variety of Poisonous mushrooms which is the foremost phobia for non consumption of mushrooms are very few (Approximately 1%) and a few 30 species are taken into consideration to be deadly. The diversity of mushroom germplasm is giant in tropical and subtropical regions and is least known. Macrofungi live on in various climate starting from incredibly temperate arctic region (Lycoperdon Molle, to quite tropical wilderness mushrooms discovered in Sahara and Kalahari (wilderness truffles, Terfizia spp., ). 

Indian sub-continent with extremely numerous weather from temeperate – subtropical – tropical to arid harbours high variability of macrofungi.Where does India stand in mushroom production: The international mushroom production in 2014 become 10.37 million tonnes with China contributing 73.Fifty seven% (7.62 million tonnes) of the arena manufacturing . Although India’s capacity for mushroom manufacturing can be greater than 5 million tonnes primarily based on mere 10% usage of the surplus agro-residues burnt every yr, availability of various agricultural residue, cheap paintings force and appropriate numerous weather; but it contributes simply zero.27% of the global production. India’s mushroom consumption fame: Although mushrooms are extremely healthful meals but its consumption may be very meagre in India. The in line with capita consistent with annum mushroom consumption in India is 80grams in comparison to 22kg in China. 

ROLE OF ICAR-IIHR IN ENHANCING MUSHROOM PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN INDIA Mushroom Research laboratory at ICAR-IIHR is concerned in multifarious activities which include Research, best spawn production, schooling and extension closer to dispelling many myths related to mushroom cultivation and intake and making mushrooms an critical factor of the Indian weight loss plan. Mushroom generation is one of the maximum green technologies that could mitigate many social and environmental maladies like air pollutants, malnutrition, unemployment and women empowerment. Conserving the Mushroom wealth: ICAR-IIHR is concerned in conserving the wild culinary medicinal mushroom germplasm from extraordinary geographical areas of the us of a. The lab has documented more than 400 species of untamed mushrooms of which 11 genera are seasonally accrued from the wild and consumed in extraordinary parts of the united states. 

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Conservation and improvement of domestication package of such mushrooms is an essential component being undertaken within the laboratory. Pink oyster mushroom, Pleurotus djamor (Western ghats), Wild pressure of Pleurotus cystidiosus (Bengaluru), Species of Macrocybe (Bengaluru), Lentinula tuber-regium (Tripura), Clitocybe and calocybe species (Gujarat) are some of the wild lines that have been domesticated.Changing the attitude: Many human beings in urban and rural India have many reservations about ingesting mushrooms. ICAR-IIHR has been operating towards addressing this venture via providing scientific information about the vegetarian repute of mushrooms. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. The demonstration of the whole manner of oyster, Milky and shiitake mushroom manufacturing from making mushroom seeds (spawn) on sterilized Jowar grains to cultivation on steam sterilized straw, utilization of potable water for the duration of cultivation, no chemicals used inside the system of cultivation, extraordinarily hygienic conditions in mushroom farms convinces humans that Oyster, Milky and Shiitake mushrooms are the most hygienic and chemical loose vegetables available in the market. 

Diversity in my meals plate: Mushroom in India had emerge as synonymous with Button mushroom cultivation and intake. Realizing the importance of food variety for sustainable nutrition, ICAR-IIHR undertook research on severa other mushroom sorts and developed the entire End to End technologies of oyster, Mliky and shiitake mushrooms. Many greater sorts like King oyster mushroom, Beech mushroom, Lion’s mane mushroom, Black poplar mushroom are underneath research. Mushroom in my daily diet: Numerous value added merchandise like Arka Mushroom rasam powder, Mushroom nutritive powder (chutney powder, chutney poodi) have been developed via dehydrated mushrooms. These price introduced products can enhance vitamins in the each day food regimen and additionally save you publish harvest losses due to surplus production. Mushrooms as a supporting hand to mitigate malnutrition: Mushroom lab is likewise focussing towards production of iron, calcium and vitamin D enriched mushrooms which can also be a supporting hand in mitigating malnutrition. 

The lab has also evolved nutrients information of 20 species of indigenous mushrooms. Mechanization: ICAR-IIHR turned into the primary group within the u . S . A . To expand the indigenous spawn manufacturing machinery, developed structures to combine solar electricity in spawn manufacturing and cultivation methods to make the whole mushroom era more labour, electricity and time green. Support via first-class spawn: Mushroom Research lab has been assisting the mushroom farmers thru the deliver of first-rate spawn of many mushroom species. The laboratory resources 35-forty lots of spawn consistent with annum. Since the call for for spawn is very excessive and non availability of spawn is one of the foremost reasons for the sluggish development of this crop, ICAR-IIHR is likewise involved in giving technical consultancy for establishing and modernizing the spawn laboratories of the public and private area. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. According to recent estimates the mycota of Sri Lanka is relatively diverse, yet it has been noticeably little studied and stays poorly understood. 

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Sri Lanka may additionally include up to 25,000 species of fungi, of which best a little extra than 2000 are currently regarded, and this estimate does now not remember the big variety of exotics introduced along side meals, plantation, and decorative flowers. Mycological research in Sri Lanka has been restrained to positive parts of the united states, and the to be had records is widely dispersed, tough to access, and plagued by using synonymy. Commercially cultivable mushrooms were first introduced to Sri Lanka in 1985, and nowadays each endemic and non-local species are cultivated. is paper addresses the present day reputation of Sri Lankan mushroom studies, and shows measures which are needed to guide the destiny development of Sri Lankan mycology. Best NEET Coaching in Haflong. Keywords: Biodiversity, fit for human consumption mushrooms, macrofungi, medicinal mushrooms. Resumen: Según estimaciones recientes l. A. Micota de Sri Lanka es muy diversa, pero ha sido relativamente % estudiada y sigue siendo mal entendida. 

Sri Lanka puede contener hasta 25,000 especies de hongos, de las cuales sólo se conocen actualmente algo más de 2000, y esta estimación no tiene en cuenta el gran número de materiales exóticos introducidos junto con los alimentos, las plantaciones y las plantas ornamentales. La investigación micológica en Sri Lanka se ha limitado a ciertas partes del país, y los angeles información disponible está muy dispersa, de difícil acceso y plagada de sinónimos. Los hongos comercialmente cultivables se introdujeron por primera vez en Sri Lanka en 1985 y actualmente se cultivan tanto especies endémicas como no nativas. Este artículo aborda el estado real de l. A. Investigación de hongos de Sri Lanka, y sugiere medidas que son necesarias para apoyar el desarrollo futuro de la micología de Sri Lanka. Palabras clave: Biodiversidad, hongos comestibles, macrohongos, hongos medicinales. INTRODUCTION Tropical and subtropical areas are probably the richest source of new fungal species and Sri Lanka, although small in region, is not any exception. 

It is due in element to the close juxtaposition of areas which differ broadly in altitude and rainfall. Relatively few research were carried out on Sri Lankan mycota, and the statistics available is broadly scattered. Arriving at an correct estimate of Sri Lankan fungi is further Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 2017, vol. 40, no. 4, October-December, ISSN: 0187-7380 PDF generated from XML JATS4R with the aid of Redalyc Project instructional non-profit, evolved below the open get right of entry to initiative four hundred complicated with the aid of inconsistencies in synonyms used and duplicated entries across exclusive research. e works of D. N. Pegler and T. Petch collectively with a huge collection of unique illustrations of Agarics are deposited inside the library on the Royal Botanical gardens, Peradeniya, however very few guides of a later date are visible. Pegler and Petch’s macrofungi collections, furthermore, are deposited at Kew. is lack of original collections and types complicates the identity of synonymies amongst macrofungi, as it’s far both highly-priced and time-eating to borrow herbarium specimens from Kew. 

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Collections of soil and plant pathogenic fungi in Sri Lanka and the applicable literature are more whole and up up to now due to their apparent monetary significance. e earliest Sri Lankan fungi to be recorded have been Peziza ceylonische and P. Lembosa described in Houttuyn (1783). e wide variety of defined species had risen to over 2,000 in about 640 genera, due to the efforts of Berkeley and Broome (1870, 1871, 1873), Petch (1908a, 1908b, 1910, 1913, 1915a, 1915b, 1916a, 1916b, 1916c, 1917a, 1917b, 1919, 1922, 1923, 1924a, 1924b, 1924c, 1924d, 1925, 1926a, 1926b, 1927, 1928, 1945, 1947), and Petch and Bisby (1950). Various handbooks (Man and Biosphere, or MAB) on fungi parasitic on plant life, associated with bugs, or located in soil have been published in the Nineteen Seventies and Nineteen Eighties, consisting of Coomaraswamy (1979a, 1979b), Coomaraswamy and De Fonseka (1981), and Coomaraswamy and Kumarasingham (1988). Also, the complete e-book Agaric Flora of Sri Lanka turned into posted via D. N. Pegler in 1986. 

The majority of references to Sri Lankan fungi, however, are nevertheless scattered across journals, University guides, research establishments, reports, proceedings and theses. A list of fungal plant pathogens and host names, organized with the aid of S. Sivanathan (unpublished) is currently being up to date. Certain fungal groups had been researched more thoroughly than others, because of their prominence (macrofungi), or sensible importance (phytopathogens and mycorrhizae). In Sri Lanka handiest one hundred thirty Myxomycota (earlier in Kingdom fungi and now in Protozoa) species in 30 genera have been recorded (Petch and Bisby, 1950) and thereaer there are not any data in the posted literature. Seventy-two species of mainly soil-inhabiting Zygomycota were recorded in 17 genera, and 252 often entomo- or phytopathogens species of Ascomycetes have additionally been recorded. Records of species inside the order Uredinales include Uredo (58 species), Puccinia (forty one species), Aecidium (20 species), Uromyces (19 species), Ravenelia (8 species), Phragmidium (four species), Melampsora (four species), Coleosporium (three species), Diorchidium (3 species), Pucciniastrum (2 species), Hemileia (1 species), 

Blastopota (1 species), Ceratolium (1 species), Cystospora (1 species) and Scopella (1 species), making a total of 167 species (Berkeley and Broome, 1870-1873; Petch; 1908-1947; Petch and Bisby, 1950). In the ‘Aphyllophorales’ (Polyporales in present day molecular phylogeny primarily based classification), 342 species in 51 genera had been recorded. e dominant genera are Polyporus (fifty seven species), Fomes/Rigidoporus (32 species), Poria (23 species), Stereum (26 species) Samantha C. Karunarathna, et al. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH OF MUSHROOMS IN SRI LANKA PDF generated from XML JATS4R via Redalyc Project academic non-earnings, evolved below the open get entry to initiative 401 and Trametes (no number given). In Gasteromycetes (now acknowledged as gasteroid fungi) seventy five species in 37 genera have been recorded, the dominant genera being Geastrum (nine species) and Cyathus (four species). In Ustilaginales, 25 species belonging to 7 genera had been recorded.

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Exobasidiales 2 species belonging to a single genus have been recorded, and in Agaricales 513 species belonging to 50 genera were recorded, making a grand general of 1125 species in 162 genera for Sri Lanka (Berkeley and Broome, 1870-1873; Petch, 1908-1947; Petch and Bisby; 1950). e pleasant recognised fungal organization in Sri Lanka is the larger Basidiomycetes, with statistics of 513 species of Agarics in 50 genera such as Marasmius fifty three spp., Psalliota (Agaricus) 35 spp., Hygrophorus 27 spp., Lentinus 14 spp. and Pleurotus 12 spp. (Petch and Bisby, 1950; Coomaraswamy, 1979a, 1979b; Coomaraswamy and De Fonseka, 1981; Coomaraswamy and Kumarasingham, 1988). e Herbarium of Horticultural Crop Research and Development Institute (HORDI), Gannoruwa, Peradeniya has a series of 412 paintings of agarics by way of W. De Alwis (1842-1916), a Sri Lankan artist and entomologist, which might be now to be had in virtual shape. RESEARCH ON MACROFUNGI Very few studies have been carried out at the taxonomy and phylogeny of macrofungi in Sri Lanka over the past two decades, whilst Houttuyn (1783), Berkeley and Broome (1870-1873), Petch (1905-1925), Petch and Bisby (1950)

Coomaraswamy (1979a, 1979b), Pegler (1986) and Coomaraswamy and Kumarasingham (1988) have executed lot of work on macrofungi based handiest on morphological characteristics. More than 500 Agaricoid genera amassed through G. Gardner, who changed into the Superintendent of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya during 1844-1849, were defined or recorded through M. J. Berkeley. Gardner turned into helped by way of G. H. K. waites, and over 1200 dried specimens had been sent to M. J. Berkeley at Kew, for identification. Four hundred and 3 agaric species have been pronounced through Berkeley and Broome, of which 305 had been defined as new species and furnished with type collections (Berkeley and Broome, 1870, 1871, 1873). A few years aer Berkeley and Broome’s guides, Cesati (1879) described numerous agaric species primarily based on O. Beccari’s collections in 1865. F. V. Höehnel rediscovered some of Berkeley and Broome’s specimens all through his go to to Sri Lanka in 1907 (Höehnel, 1908, 1909, 1914). T. 

Petch, the appointed Mycologist at Peradeniya Royal Botanic Gardens, accumulated many mushrooms on the island and numerous of his accounts were posted for the duration of 1905-1925. Recent courses on agarics contain the genera Lepiota (Pegler, 1972) and Inocybe (synonym: Asterosporina) (Horak, 1979, 1980), and the family Entolomataceae (Pegler, 1977; Horak, 1980). Lentinus giganteus Berk. Was recently moved to Pleurotus primarily based on ai and Sri Lankan collections (Karunarathna et al., 2011), and Agaricus hanthanaensis Karun. & K.D. Hyde from Kandy district inside the primary Province of Sri Lanka became defined as a new species (Liu et al., 2015). Li Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 2017, vol. Forty, no. 4, October-December, ISSN: 0187-7380 PDF generated from XML JATS4R with the aid of Redalyc Project educational non-profit, evolved beneath the open get entry to initiative 402 et al. (2016) pronounced Clarkeinda trachodes (Berk.) Singer, Lilloa based totally on each morphological traits and molecular phylogenetic analysis aer Berkeley (1847) first defined it. 

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In addition, one coprophilous fungus (Panaeolus sphinctrinus (Fr) Quél.) and one grassland species (P. foenisecii (Pers.) J. Schröt.) have been described from Sri Lankan dry area wooded area reserves primarily based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequences (Ediriweera et al. 2015). More currently, Tipbromma et al. (2017) mentioned Boletellus emodensis (Berk.) Singer, Favolaschia auriscalpium (Mont.) Henn., F. Manipularis (Berk.) Teng, Lentinus sajor-caju (Fr.) Fr., Leucocoprinus cretaceus (Bull.) Locq., Russula cf. Virescens (Schaeff.) Fr. And Tremella fuciformis Berk. as new statistics to Sri Lanka with the support of morphological traits and DNA statistics, whilst Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. And L. Velutinus Fr. Had been mentioned with the guide of DNA information, following previous reviews with the aid of Pegler (1983). Boletellus emodensis, L. Sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus, R. Virescens and T. Fuciformis are fit to be eaten mushrooms which develop wild in Sri Lanka, but maximum Sri Lankans are not aware that they may be secure to consume. 

MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN SRI LANKA Commercial mushroom cultivation was first delivered to Sri Lanka by using the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1985. Spawn laboratories and mushroom houses for spawn production and mushroom cultivation had been installed by using the Sri Lanka Export Development Board (Rajapakse, 2014). Subsequently, studies and development activities linked to mushroom cultivation had been led via the Department of Agriculture because the nation institution accountable for food crop manufacturing. e most famous cultivated species throughout the usa in terms of production and consumption is Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm., accompanied by means of P. Cystidiosus O. K. Mill. And P. Eous (Berk.) Sacc. Even though the necessary technology for the cultivation of P. Eryngii (D. C.) Quél. Has been comprehensively advanced through researchers (Anon, 2009), this has been constrained to the mid- and up u . S . A . Of Sri Lanka. Volvariella spp. (paddy straw mushroom) production is normally carried out outside in Sri Lanka (Rajapakse, 2014). 

The protocol for cultivation of button mushrooms in Sri Lanka [Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Imbach] changed into evolved by Wijesinghe et al. (2000). Cultivation of milky mushroom (Callocybe indica Purkay. & A. Chandra) and black ear mushrooms (Auricularia spp.) had been first added to the us of a by means of Udugama and Wickramarathna (1991). Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. Cultivation changed into delicate through Rajapakse et al. (2010), at the same time as Bandaranayake et al. (2012) first said cultivation era and methods for domesticated G. Lucidum. Methods for the successful synthetic cultivation of the Sri Lankan endemic mushroom Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna & K.D. Hyde (Udugama and Wickramarathna, 1995) were evolved using sawdust. Recently, Namalee et al. (2016) published the commercial Samantha C. Karunarathna, et al. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH OF MUSHROOMS IN SRI LANKA PDF generated from XML JATS4R through Redalyc Project academic non-earnings, evolved under the open get entry to initiative 403 cultivation capability of P. 

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Giganteus, using locally edition of sawdustbased compost media under ambient tropical conditions – a way typically used for oyster mushroom cultivation (Figure 1). Figure 1. Edible mushrooms recorded in Tipbromma et al. (2017) A) Lentinus squarrosulus. B) Russula cf. Virescens. C) Tremella fuciformis. D) Lentinus sajor-caju. E) Boletellus emodensis. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS e proper identification of mushrooms, plant pathogenic fungi, and different fungi is an essential a part of Sri Lankan fungi research. Although numerous suitable for eating and medicinal mushrooms are observed in Sri Lanka, maximum human beings are afraid to take advantage of this resource due to a extensive lack of mushroom know-how. High college and college college students, farmers and different nearby groups in Sri Lanka must be knowledgeable via workshops, conferences and manual books on how to accurately make use of safe to eat and medicinal mushrooms. If managed well, the gathering and cultivation of edible and medicinal mushrooms can provide a enormous boost to rural earning and vitamins. 

Sri Lanka wishes each a countrywide fungi herbarium and culture collection, and a sturdy community of neighborhood fungi research businesses. It is likewise critical to have a focal point for mycological sports inside the country wide herbarium able to handling the identity of all neighborhood fungi. Collaboration with different fungi studies businesses round the sector is also essential so as for Sri Lankan scientists to stay abreast of recent strategies and discoveries in fungi research. Sri Lankan mycologists should additionally be recognized for their difficult paintings and endurance in growing this oen neglected location of mycology.Agricultural waste production in Indonesia is very ample. Agricultural wastes such as banana peels, rice straw, corncobs, sugarcane bagasse, sawdust, oil palm empty fruit bunches, and coconut fiber nonetheless have high lignocellulosic content. Lignocellulose consists of three carbohydrate polymers, particularly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. 

Waste containing lignocellulose can be used as a carbon source [1]. This additionally occurs inside the livestock manufacturing method, which produces fuel ammonia. However, the ammonia may be reduced by means of using lime and soybean plant life [2] Agricultural residues such as oil palm empty fruit bunches, corn cobs, and sawdust are nicely applied as white oyster mushroom developing media. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp) is a intake mushroom with high nutritional price. Some types commonly cultivated by using the Indonesian people are white oyster mushroom (P.Ostreatus), crimson oyster mushroom (P.Flabellatus), grey oyster mushroom (P. Sajor caju), and abalone oyster mushroom (P. Cystidiosus). White oyster mushroom is one form of wood fungus that can be eaten [3] and has a high nutritional value, particularly carbohydrate, protein, fat, crude fiber, Ca, Fe, thiamin, riboflavin [4]. This mushroom can grow on various substrates that incorporate lignocellulose. 

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One of the developing media that has not been used by the farming community is agricultural waste. These ICROEST 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 575 (2020) 012090 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/575/1/012090 2 wastes consist of sawdust, corn cobs, and oil palm bunches. The farm waste carries many elements that vegetation want and may be used as a source for growing white oyster mushrooms. Another nutrient supply not used by farmers is coconut water, which includes sugar and micro minerals as a beneficial supply of vitamins for mushrooms. Coconut water additionally carries organic acids and amino acids and consists of sugar. It has the gain of stimulating plant growth and may be introduced to the developing media of white oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The research objectives is to discover the quality developing media for the boom and production of oyster mushrooms from agricultural waste. 2. 

Materials and Methods 2.1. Materials and Research Design Materials used for the developing media from the agricultural waste of carbon assets received from farmers, specifically oil palm bunches, corncobs, and sawdust. The content material is mashed and sifted, then every mixed with bran and lime. The media mixture become moistened with 30% water. The combination become then given coconut water in step with remedy. After that, it was composted for seven days. The media is put right into a baglog length 18×30 cm, compacted, and sterilized by steaming for eight hours. After being cooled to temperatures attaining 30oC, mushroom seeds are put into a baglog. Oyster mushroom seeds have been acquired from mushroom farmers approximately 10 days after inoculation. The studies turned into organized in an experimental shape the usage of a factorial design based totally on a Randomized Group Design. The first factor is the growing media, consisting of oil palm empty fruit bunches, corn cobs, and sawdust. The 2d factor is the availability of coconut water with 2 tiers of maturity, specifically younger coconut water and antique coconut water. 

This observe consisted of 6 treatment mixtures, and each aggregate consisted of 3 groups, so there were 18 experimental gadgets. 2.2. Oyster Mushroom increase take a look at on diverse media The mouth of the oyster mushroom baglog, which has been full of mycelium, is then opened. Daily fogging is completed to keep its moisture. The boom parameters of the oyster mushrooms had been through measuring the time taken with the aid of the mycelium fungus to fill within the baglog and the primary pinhead appearance. 2.Three. Fresh Weight of oyster mushrooms on diverse media Oyster mushrooms have been harvested while the hood hasn’t curled; the colour hasn’t dwindled, the spores haven’t been launched, the texture remains robust and bendy. Harvesting become accomplished by using pulling out without leaving part of the fungus. The mushrooms were is harvested after three days of performing pinhead. three. Results and Discussion three.1. Growth of White Oyster Mushroom Mycelium White oyster mushrooms confirmed the ability to grow on all carbon supply media that had been tested in this observe. 

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The fungus produces quite a variety of fruiting frame in all developing media The oil palm empty fruit bunching media was capable of grow mycelium white oyster mushrooms to fill the baglog faster than the opposite remedies, which changed into 23.7 days (Table 1). That time is influence by using the content material of cellulose and hemicellulose in high oil palm empty fruit bunches. High cellulose and hemicellulose in oil palm empty fruit bunching waste break down into more truthful substances. Its material is greater comfortably decomposed than lignin so that it may be integrated by way of fungal cells as nutrients. The oil palm empty fruit bunches hemicellulose content material is 28.9 percentage [5]. Cellulose and hemicellulose will turn into glucose, whereas lignin is proof against microbial decomposition, so the weathering or degradation method turns into sluggish and calls for extra time. Therefore, the greater cellulose and hemicellulose content in a type of media can growth the increase price of white oyster mushroom mycelium. 

But excessive tiers of lignin in a medium can inhibit the boom of white oyster mushroom mycelium. Cellulose is a carbon compound along with greater than a thousand glucose gadgets and can be decomposed by way of diverse cellulolytic organisms into natural C compounds. While lignin is a waste factor that is surprisingly difficult to degrade. This compound is a structural polymer related to cellulose and hemicellulose [6]. Oyster mushrooms’ ability to develop on different carbon source media including cocoa pods has additionally been reported. Seven days after inoculation in Petri dish, the boom of oyster mushroom mycelium reached a diameter of seven cm in cellulose media, and 4.10 cm in lignin media [7,8]. While the use of coconut water at different adulthood tiers does no longer affect mycelium’s boom fee, nutrients in coconut water have now not been applied optimally through white oyster mushrooms. It additionally occurred in research [9], particularly the availability of coconut water and demons (one of the boom regulators did now not reply nicely to the growth of oyster mushroom mycelium. 

It became also shown in research performed [10]. The provision of coconut water with specific concentrations and ages offers the equal impact on mycelium boom. Coconut water with special ages and ranges continues to be not able to supply all the nutrient requirements wanted for mycelium increase. The speed of fungus mycelium filling the baglog on oil palm empty fruit bunches media also affected the fast formation of a white oyster mushroom pinhead, that is 35.11 days after inoculation, in comparison to the sawdust planting media whose pinhead seemed at 47.17 days. The ICROEST 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 575 (2020) 012090 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1755-1315/575/1/012090 4 formation of fruit our bodies or pinhead is not directly laid low with mycelium boom. Mycelium increase is the initial degree of fruit frame formation. Mycelium serves to soak up water, vitamins, and organic rely from the media to stimulate the boom and improvement of white oyster mushrooms. 

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High cellulose and hemicellulose content in oil palm empty fruit bunches waste will ruin down into greater truthful substances so they may be used as nutrients to be absorbed into cells. Both of those elements will change into glucose [11]. Table 1 additionally suggests that the interplay among the forms of growing media and the coconut water degree has a enormous impact at the variety of white oyster mushroom bodies. The excellent growing media is oil palm empty fruit bunches, which is given younger coconut water with average fruit bodies of 14.56 gadgets. This quantity is a long way extra than the remedy of sawdust planting media that is 2.89 fruit bodies, whereas the production of the oyster mushroom fresh fruit frame is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Fresh weight of oyster mushrooms (g) produced in diverse boom media assets of carbon. The use of oil palm empty fruit bunches as an oyster mushroom cultivation media is still not often used and more directed at polymer fibers, soil conditioners, and fiberboard and biosilica fertilizer [12– 14]. 

Oyster mushroom production is higher in oil palm empty fruit bunches, although not notably one-of-a-kind from corn cobs (Figure 2). Oil palm empty fruit bunches media, which has been used for oyster mushroom cultivation, can also be used as a planting medium for other commodities along with for horticultural plant cultivation. It consists of carbon (C), that’s quite high is 28.Forty one%. It additionally contains N 2.42%, P zero.Fifty eight%, K zero.95%, Na zero.Fifty one ppm, Mg zero.53 ppm, and Fe 0.98 ppm [15]. The oil palm empty fruit bunches include high cellulose, which white oyster mushrooms are wanted for increase. Besides that, the lignin content is low, so it does not inhibit the growth of oyster mushrooms. The lowest growth and manufacturing of white oyster mushrooms have been in sawdust media. Sawdust includes lignin, that’s excessive enough that it takes a long term to be degraded by means of white oyster mushrooms as a substrate. The mechanism of cellulose molecular breakdown is inhibited through the high diploma of polymerization and crystallization and the lignin content that wraps the cellulose molecule. 

Delignification is a system of freeing lignin from a complex compound. This process is vital before the hydrolysis of cellulolytic fabric because lignin can inhibit the penetration of acids or enzymes before the hydrolysis takes area [16]. Oyster mushrooms, in addition to consumption mushrooms, and weathering fungi able to generating lignocellulose enzymes characterized by the formation of clean zones in czapek dox, reach seventy five% [17]. The remedy of using coconut water at one-of-a-kind tiers of adulthood did now not affect the developing media used at the sparkling weight of the white oyster mushroom body. Although it contains sugar, coconut water has a low count number content (2% to 5% wet basis) [18]. It may be the motive of the level of adulthood of coconut water, which has no real effect at the boom and production of oyster mushrooms.