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It is believed that Mendel discovered the fundamental principles of heredity through breeding garden peas using carefully designed experiments the typical experiment, Mendel mated two contrasting true-breeding types and a process known as hybridization. The parents who are true breeders are called the P generation. These hybrids are known as the F1 generation. F1 individuals self-pollinate or cross pollinate with others F1 hybrids, they are considered to be the F2 generations are born. (c) (2011) Pearson Education, Inc. Mendel’s Experiments Figure 14.3-3 P Generation Experiment (true-breeding parent) F1 Generation (hybrids) F2 Generation purple flowers White flowering plants. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†All of the plants displayed purple flowersor cross-pollination of 705 purple-flowered plants 224 white flowering plants Mendel thought that only the factor associated with the purple flowers is affecting the flower’s color within the F1 hybrids Mendel described the purple flower’s color a dominant characteristic and the white flowers color a recessive one The white flowering factor did not diminish or disappear since it was present during the second generation (c) 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. Table 14.1 * Mendel observed the similar pattern of inheritance in six other characters from pea plants which are each with two different characteristics The trait that Mendel identified as”heritable factors” or “heritable element” is what we refer to as a Gene Mendel’s Model * Mendel came up with a theory to explain the 3:3 inheritance pattern that he observed in F2 offspring.¬†

Four closely related concepts form the basis of the model are in direct relation to the current knowledge about chromosomes and genes (c) 2011. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†Figure 14.4 Allele for the purple flowers Locus for the gene that produces flowers. The white flowering gene Allele of homologous chromosomes in Mendel’s model 1.Alternative variants (alleles) that are inherited elements (genes) provide a reason for variation in traits inherited from parents 2.An organism is born with two alleles that are one from every parent 3.If two of the alleles are not identical in their traits, the characteristic is defined by the dominant one while the recessive variant does not affect the appearance of the animal. 4.the two alleles that make up heritable characters are kept separate (segregate) in the course of gamete development and then end up in distinct games (this is now called segregation law) 5.

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Alleles that belong to distinct genes are passed on independently of one another (this is known in the field of law of autonomous selection (more on this later) 14.5-3 14.5-3 P Generation Appearance: Genetic makeup Gametes: Flowers in purple White flowers Pp (pp) P The F1 generation’s appearance is based on the genetic makeup Games: Flowers in purple 1 1/2 P 2 Generation Sperm from the F1 (Pp) plants P P eggs from the F1 (Pp) plants Pp Pp 3: 1 The possibilities of combination of eggs and sperm can be analyzed using the Punnett square, which is an illustration of the outcomes of a genetic crossing between people of a specific genetic make-up. * A capital letter signifies the dominant allele, while lowercase indicates a recessive allele. A useful genetic vocabulary organism that has two identical alleles for one character is considered to be homozygous to the gene that controls that character.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†A species that has two different alleles of an individual gene is believed to be heterozygous for the gene that controls that particular character. * We differentiate between an organism’s physical appearance, or phenotype and its genotype or genetic makeup. (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†This is known as the Law of Independent Assortment * Mendel discovered Segregation laws taking a character as a model. The F1 offspring that resulted from the cross were monohybrids. those who are heterozygous to only one character. A crossing with heterozygotes can be described as an unihybrid crossing (c) 2011. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†Question: Let’s say that the homozygous purple flowering plants have been crossing with white flower which are homozygous recessive for the flower color.

¬†(a) How do you determine the genotypic ratio of offspring?¬†(b) How do you determine the genetic ratio for offspring?¬†(c) How high is the likelihood that a child’s flower is purple?¬†* Mendel discovered the 2nd law of inheritance after studying two characters simultaneously A true-breeding parent’s cross that differ in two characters creates dihybrids that are part of the F1 generation, which are heterozygous for both characters dihybrid, or a crossing between F1 dihybrids, will determine the likelihood that two characters will be passed on to offspring in a package or in a separate manner. (c) 2011.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

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 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 14.8 P Generation F1 Generation Predictions Gametes Experiment Results YYRR yyrrr YR Hypothesis of dependent array A hypothesis for independent selection Offspring predicted to be of the F2 generation Sperm sperm (also known as Eggs) Phenotypic Ratio 3:1 Phenotypic Ratio 9:3:3:1 33 108 101 Phenotypic Ratio approximately 9:3:3 1:1 1/2 1/2 1/4 1/4 1/4 4 1/4 1 3/16 3/16 3/16 3/16 1/16 YR 1/16 yr 1/4 3/4 1/16 YR YR YYRR YYRr Ayrrr Yyrrr YYRr Yy The YYRr is YYRr, YYRr is The YyRR gene is a phenotype that can be described as The yyrrr is a yyrr (Would be the case if Y as well as R gene are similar to one another within an identical the same chromosome) (Would be the case in the event that Y and R genes are located on a different chromosomes) With an ethylated cross Mendel came up with the law of independent assortment.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 The law of independent assortment states that every pair of alleles is segregated independently of the other pairs of alleles when a gamete is formed (sperm/egg cells in the YyRr family will contain one or the other of both) In essence, this law only applies to genes located on distinct homologous or nonhomologous chromosomes, or separated from the same chromosome Genes with a close proximity in the same region of the chromosome are more likely to be passed down through the generations (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 14.3 The inheritance patterns are usually more complicated than what can be predicted using simple Mendelian genetics. The relationship between genotype and phenotype often not as clear as the pea plant species Mendel was studying. * A lot of heritable traits are not determined by just two genes with two alleles . However, the concepts of segregation as well as independent selection are applicable to more complicated patterns of inheritance.

¬†For instance, the the blood type of ABO is determined using three different alleles and is an illustration that codominance is a factor (c) Pearson Education, Inc.¬†The figure 14.11 Carbohydrate allele (a) Three alleles that make up the blood groups ABO as well as their carbohydrates (b) Genotypes for blood groups and genotypes red the appearance of blood cells Phenotype (blood group) A A B AB not O IB 1/16 3/16 I II AIB IAIA or IBIB (IBi) Nature and Nurture: environmental Effects on Phenotypes * Example The flowers of hydrangeas with the same genotype can range from pink to blue, according to the soil’s acidity (c) The 2011 edition of Pearson Education, Inc. Genetic testing and counseling Genetic counselors are able to provide information for parents who are considering adopting a child with the family history of the presence of a particular disease.¬†

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 Pearson Education, Inc. Further complexities in inheritance Many genetic characteristics are not as straightforward as those that Mendel investigated. Codominance, incomplete dominance multi-alleles, pleiotropy epistasis as well as polygenic inheritance, are discussed on the following slides. The figure 14.UN03 Dominance complete of a single allele between alleles of the same gene Description Example of complete dominance of one or both alleles Pliotropy Heterozygous Multiple Alleles the same phenotype as homozygous dominant Heterozygous Phenotype in which is in between homozygous types of phenotypes. Both are occur in heterozygotes all of the population, there are genes that contain more than two alleles. The same gene may alter multiple phenotypic characteristics Sickle-cell disease PP Crcr CRCW CWCW CWCW IAIB and IB , i Figure 14.UN04 Epistasis/Polygenic Illness between several genes.

¬†Example expression of a phenotype by one gene can affect the expression of another. One phenotypic characteristic is affected by more than one gene 9 3 BbEe BbEe BE BE bE BE Be be AaBbCc BbCc Presentations of Lectures on The CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Ninth Edition Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures given by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick The Chromosomal Basis of Hereditary 15 Revised by Garrett Dancik’s concept 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical roots in the way chromosomes behave. The chromosome theory of inheritance states that – Mendelian genes possess specific loci (positions) within chromosomes Chromosomes undergo segregation as well as independent assortment .Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 The behaviour of chromosomes in meiosis (cell division, which leads to the creation of gamestes) can explain the laws of segregation that Mendel studied and independent selection (c) 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. The figure 15.2 shows 15.2 P Generation F1 Generation Yellow-round seeds (YYRR) Green-wrinkled seeds (yyrr) The Meiosis Fertilization Gametes R R Y R Y r F1 plants grow round yellow seed (YyRr). Meiosis Metaphase I Anaphase I Metaphase II R R R R R R R R R R R R r r r r r r r r r r r r Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y y y y y y y y y y y y y Gametes LAW OF SEGREGATION The two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation. LAW of INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT Genes on nonhomologous the chromosomes differ when gametes form. 1/4 1/4 1/4 1 1 Year 4 yr F2 Generation Fertilization mixes two alleles, namely R and R by random.

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Fertilization results in 9:3 3:1 proportion of phenotypes in the generation known as F2.¬†The F1 ‘ F1 ‘ F1 cross-fertilization 9 3 : 3 1 r for each gene, the gamete has an allele only (e.g. either Y, but not Yy) Each gamete is randomly containing an allele that belong to the respective gene (YR, the yr, Yr and the latter being YR.) Correlating the Behavior of Genes’ Alleles to the Behavior of a Chromosome-Pair In one study, Morgan mated male flies with white eyes (mutant) with female flies that had eye color red (wild type) This resulted in the F1 generation was all eyes with red – The F2 generation had a 3:1 ratio of the white and red eyes however, only males had white eyes . Morgan discovered that the mutant with white eyes must be on the X chromosome Morgan’s discovery confirmed the chromosome theory for inheritance (c) 2011. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†Illustration 15.4 All offspring have eyes that were red.

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 P Generation F1 Generation F2 Generation F2 Generation F1 Generation P Generation Eggs Eggs Sperm Sperm Xw+ Y RESULTS EXPERIMENT CONCLUSION Xw+ Xw Xw+ Xw+ Xw+ Xw Y X Y w Xw+ Xw+ Xw Y Xw+ Xw+ Xw+ Xw Xw Y Y Xw+ XX Рmale fly XY Рfemale fly w+ Рred eyes (wild type) w Рwhite eyes (mutant) Now we use notation to indicate that the eye color allele is on the X chromosome: Xw+ Рan X chromosome with the red eye allele Concept 15.2: Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance * In humans and some other animals, there is a chromosomal basis of sex determination * Females are XX, and males are XY* * Each ovum contains an X chromosome, while a sperm may contain either an X or a Y chromosome * Other animals have different methods of sex determination (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†*Actually, it’s more complicated than that, https://www.sciencealert.com/a-baby-s-sex-is-about-more-than-just-its-x-and-y-chromosomes-new-research-reveals * A gene that is located on either sex chromosome is called a sex-linked gene * Genes on the Y chromosome are called Y-linked genes; there are few of these * Genes on the X chromosome are called X-linked genes (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. * X-linked genes follow specific patterns of inheritance * For a recessive X-linked trait to be expressed – A female needs two copies of the allele (homozygous) – A male needs only one copy of the allele (hemizygous) * X-linked recessive disorders are much more common in males than in females (c) 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.¬†Figure 15.7 Eggs, Eggs, and Sperm Sperm (a) (b) (c) The XNXN gene is XNXN. the XNXn is XnY and the XN is the Y gene Xn Y the Xn gene XNXN XNXn A XN XN XNY, XNY, XNY NXXn XNXn the X-linked genes are passed down through generations.

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Recessive characteristics * Certain disorders result from recessive alleles on the X chromosome of humans. color blindness (mostly associated with X) (mostly X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy Hemophilia (c) 2011. Pearson Education, Inc. The X gene is activated in female mammals. In female mammals, both X-chromosomes found in every cell is activated randomly during the embryonic stage The inactive X encapsulates into a Barr body If females are heterozygous for the specific gene on the X chromosome it will form an individual with that particular characteristic (c) Pearson Education, Inc.Pearson Education, Inc. 15.8 Early embryo: X chromosomes inactivated 15.8 The early embryo X chromosomes allele that is associated with orange fur. 

The black fur two-cell population within adult cats: Cell division and X-chromosome inactivation Active X Inactive Black fur orange fur Recombination between linked genes Crossing Over Morgan realized that gene expression could be linked, however the linkage was not complete as a result of recombinant phenotypes that were observed. He suggested that there was a mechanism that could break the physical link between two genes on the same chromosome. * The process was called the crossing between homologue chromosomes (c) 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. Genes that are located far from each other from each other The same chromosome could be recombinant at a rate close to 50%. This is due to crossing over.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

These genes have physical connections, however genetically, they behave as if they are on different chromosomesLiving organisms can be distinguished by their capacity to reproduce themselves. Heredity is the transfer of traits from one generation to the next. It is apparent by the distinct appearance differences that offspring display from parents and siblings. Genetics is the study of science of heredity and variations (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 10.1 In the process of inheritance, offspring receive genes from their parents through inheritance of their chromosomes. In the literally sense, the children don’t inherit specific physical characteristics in their families (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Inheritance of Genes Genes are elements of heredity. They comprised of DNA fragments of DNA.¬†

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DNA is transferred to the next generation through gametes, which are reproductive cells that produce eggs and sperm. (sperm or eggs) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The majority of DNA is packed into chromosomes. For example human beings have 46 chromosomes within their somatic cells. These are the cells in the body, with the exception for gametes as well as their precursors. Each gene is assigned a particular location, or position of a specific the chromosome (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†Comparison of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Asexual reproduction is when one person passes genes to their offspring without the fusion of gametes. The term “clone” refers to a group of genetically identical individuals who share the same parent.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 In sexual reproduction two parents can give birth to offspring that possess unique genetic combinations that are inherited from both parents (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.2 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 0.5 mm Parent Bud (a) Hydra (b) Redwoods Concept 10.2: Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles A life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells Human somatic cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes A karyotype is an ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell The two chromosomes in each pair are called homologous chromosomes, or homologs Chromosomes in a homologous pair are the same length and shape and carry genes controlling the same inherited characters (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

 Pearson Education, Inc. Technique Results Two homologous duplicated copies of chromosomes. Centromere m Sister chromatids Metaphase Chromosome 10.3-2 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.3-2 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Results Two homologous duplicated copies of chromosomes. Centromere M Sister chromatids Metaphase chromosome 10.3-3 (c) 10.3-3 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. 5 m The sexchromosomes are the ones that decide the sexuality of an individual, are known as X and Y. Females have a homologous pair (X) and Y chromosomes (XX) The males of the human species possess one the chromosomes X and Y. These 22 types of chromosomes can be referred to as autosomes (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The homologous chromosome pair comprises one chromosome for each parent. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

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The 46 chromosomes of human cells are made up of two 23-chromosome sets: one set from the mother and the other from the father. A Diploid cell (2n) contains 2 sets of chromosomes. In humans diploids, the number is (46) (2n 46) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. In a cell where DNA synthesis is taking place and each chromosome has been duplicated. Each replicated chromosome is composed of identical twin chromatids (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. 10.4 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.4 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Key 2n 6 Maternal Set of chromosomes (n 3) Paternal set of chromosomes (n 3) Sister chromatids that comprise one duplicated chromosome . Centromere Two non-sister chromatids within an homologous pair identical chromosomes (one from each set) Gametes (sperm or egg) has only one set of chromosomes, and is the only haploid cell.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 (n) for humans. the number of haploids will be 23, which is (n = 23) Each set of 23 is comprised of 22 autosomes, and one sex chromosome . In an unfertilized egg (ovum) The one chromosome that is sex is X. In sperm cells the sex chromosome could be either the X or the Y (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. The Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle Fertilization is the combination of gametes (the egg and the sperm) A fertilized embryo is known as an zygote. It contains a single set of chromosomes from every parent. The zygote creates somatic cells via mitosis and then develops to become an adult (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. When sexual maturity is reached, the tests and ovaries produce haploid gametes. They are the only type of human cells that are produced through meiosis, not mitosis. Meiosis produces one set of chromosomes for each gamete.

¬†Fertilization and meiosis occur in different cycles to keep chromosome numbers constant. (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Education, Inc.¬†The figure 10.5 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Key Haploid (n) Haploid gametes (n 23) Egg (n) Sperm (n) MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION ovary testis diploid zygote (2n 46) Development and Mitosis Adults with multicellular diploids (2n 2n) diploid (2n) The diversity in Sexual Life Cycles cycle of meiosis and fertilization is something that is shared by all living organisms which reproduce sexually. The three forms of sexual cycle differ with respect to the time frame of meiosis as well as fertilization (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Gametes are the sole animal cells that are haploid. They are made by meiosis and don’t undergo more cell divisions prior to fertilization. Gametes re-group to form a diploid-like Zygote, which splits via mitosis, and then develops into a multicellular entity (c) 2016.

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 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-1 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-1 (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Games n MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION 2n Diploid multicellular animal (a) Zootes Zygote 2n Plants as well as some algae have an alternate of generations.This life-cycle includes diploid and multicellular haploid stage. A diploid organism known as the sporophyte, produces haploid spores through meiosis (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Each spore is transformed through mitosis to become the haploid species known as a gametophyte . Gametophytes produce gametes that are haploid through mitosis. The fertilization of gametes produces an sporophyte that is diploid (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-2 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-2 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Multicellular Haploid (gametophyte) haploid (n) diploid (2n) Mitosis the Mitosis process n Spores MEIOSIS Gametes FETERILIZATION 2n Multicellular Diploid (sporophyte). Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 2. Mitosis Zygote (b) Plants and some algae In the majority of protists and fungi The only diploid phase is the single-celled single-cell zygote. it is not a multicellular diploid phase. The zygote creates the haploid cells via meiosis. haploid cell is transformed through mitosis and transforms into an haploid multicellular organism adult that is haploid makes gametes via the process of mitosis (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-3 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.6-3 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Multicellular or unicellular Haploid species (n) Haploid (n) diploid (2n) Mitosis Mitosis n Gametes meiosis 2n zygote DERTILIZATION (c) The majority of fungi as well as certain protists, based on the kind of life cycle either diploid or haploid cells can be divided by mitosis. But only diploid cells undergo meiosis. In all three of the life cycles The halving and the doubling of chromosomes are responsible for the genetic diversity of children (c) 2016.

 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 10.3 Meiosis is the process that reduces the number of chromosomes and converts them to haploid. Similar to meiosis, meiosis begins through the duplication and re-plication of the chromosomes. Meiosis is a process that occurs in two cell divisions, meiosis I as well as meiosis II. Two cell divisions create the formation of four daughters, more than the two cells during mitosis. each daughter cell having less than half the number of chromosomes as its parent cell. (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. The stages of Meiosis for a single set of homologous chromosomes inside the diploid cell, each member of the pair are duplicated. The resulting sister chromatids are closely linked throughout their lengths. Homologs could have different versions of their genes, being called an allele homolog. They are not connected in any apparent way , except for meiosis. 

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Pearson Education, Inc. 10.7 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.7 (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Interphase Homologous chromosomes within a diploid cells. Pair of duplicated homologous chromosomes called Sister Meiosis I chromatids Homologous chromos separate Meiosis II haploid cells that have duplicated chromosomes. Sister Chromosomes are separate from the duplicated Diploid cells with duplicated chromosomes. Haploid cells without duplicated chromosomes 10.7-1 (c) 10.7-1 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Interphase pair of homologous chromosomes in the diploid parent cell of homologous chromosomes that have been duplicated Chromosomes duplicate Sister chromatids in a diploid Cell with doubled chromosomes 10.7-2 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

10.7-2 (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Meiosis I Homologous Chromosomes are separated haploid cells that have duplicated chromosomes. Sister chromatids are separated meiosis II haploid cells having unduplicated chromosomes. Meiosis cuts down the number of chromosomes. it cuts down the set size from 2 to 1 and each cell receives a number of the so-called chromosomes (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. In the initial meiotic divisions, homologous pairs of chromosomes form a pair and are separated. in the second meiotic division the sister chromatids from each chromosome are separated. four new haploid cells have been created due to this process. (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.8 (c) 10.8 (c) The 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 

MEIOSIS I Separates homologous chromosomes in Prophase of Metaphase 1 and Anaphase 1. in addition to Cytokinesis MEIOSIS II Separates sister chromatids in Prophase II Telophase I and Cytokinesis the Metaphase II phase The figure 10.8-1 (c) is from the year 2016. 10.8-1 (c) The 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS I Separates homologous genomes in Anaphase of Prophase I The sister chromatids are still connected in Telophase I as well as Cytokinesis The centrosome (with centrioles) Kinetochore (at centromere) Chiasmata Kinetochore microtubules Spindle microtubules Metaphase Plate A pair of homologous chromosomes, fragments of the nuclear envelope Homologous chromosomes distinct Cleavage furrows Centromere The figure 10.8-1a shows that 10.8-1a (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc.

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 MEIOSIS I Separates homologous genomes The Prophase I Metaphase I centrosome (with centriole couple) Kinetochore (at centromere) Chiasmata Kinetochore Sister chromatids microtubules Spindle Microtubules Metaphase Plate The two homologous chromosomes are separated by the centromere Fragments of the nuclear envelope The nuclear envelope is broken into fragments in Figure 10.8-1b (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS I Separates homologous homologous chromosomes during Anaphase I sister chromatids stay attached in Telophase I and Cytokinesis Homologous chromosomes are separated by a cleavage furrow 10.8-2 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.8-2 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. MEIOSIS II Separates sister chromatids in Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase I Telophase II and Cytokinesis The sister chromatids of Haploid cells are separate from daughter cells, forming Prophase I Chromosomes expand gradually through prophase I.

 Homologous Chromosomes join together, and aligned genes by gene (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. The crossing of non-sister chromatids swap DNA segments. each homologous set has some X-shaped areas that are referred to as chiasmata chiasmata. the points at which crossing has occurred. (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Metaphase I During metaphase I homologous couples line up on the metaphase plate having one of the chromosomes facing the other pole. Microtubules that are attached to one pole connect to the kinetochore that is located on the one chromosome in each tetrad. Microtubules from the other pole are linked to the kinetochore on another chromosome (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc.

 Anaphase I In anaphase I two homologous chromosomes are separated. The chromosomes move towards each pole in the direction of the spindle apparatus. Sister chromatids stay attached at the centromere and are able to move in a single unit towards to the other pole (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Telophase I and Cytokinesis At the initial stages of the telophase each cell is composed of a haploid set of chromosomes. Each is comprised of two sister chromatids Cytokinesis generally occurs in tandem creating two daughter cells that are haploid (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. In animals there is a cleavage furrow that forms in plant cells. the cell plate is formed. duplication of chromosomes occurs between meiosis I until the beginning of meiosis II since the chromosomes have already been replicated (c) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

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 Meiosis II is also characterized by division. happens in 4 phases: Prophase II. Metaphase II. Anaphase 2. Telophase II as well as cytokinesis. meiosis II is identical as mitosis. (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase II In Prophase II, a spindle-like apparatus is formed in the late phase of prophase II the Chromosomes (each consisting of two distinct chromatids) advance towards their metaphase plates (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Metaphase II Sister chromatids are placed on the metaphase plate. Because that meiosis causes crossing over I that both sister chromatids on each chromosome have become genetically equivalent. The kinetochores from sister chromatids connect to microtubules which extend across the opposite pole. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

Pearson Education, Inc. Anaphase II During anaphase II Anaphase II, sister chromatids are separated. the sister chromatids from each chromosome are now moved as two chromosomes that are newly formed towards opposing poles (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Telophase II and Cytokinesis The nuclei are formed and the chromosomes begin decondensing . At the end of meiosis, there’s four daughter cells each with a haploid set of unuplicated the chromosomes of each daughter cell. The daughter cells are genetically distinct from all the other cells and also from the parent cell. (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.¬†The process of crossing over and synapsis occurs during Prophase I In prophase I there is a time when two homologous members of a pair bind with each other along their length.

 They are allele through a synaptonemal complex is formed in this connection (synapsis) Synaptonemal complexes are DNA molecules that from paternal and maternal chromatids are separated at the same point. the DNA break is then closed to ensure that a paternal chromatid is joined to a chromosome of the maternal chromatid and vice versa. (c) The 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10.9 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Two homologous DNA chromosomes break Centromere The paternal and maternal sister chromatids of the Paternal Sister chromatid splits Synaptonemal complex to form Maternal sister chromatids Synaptonemal Complex Crossover Chiasmata Crossover DNA 10.9-1 (c) 10.9-1 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc.

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Mitosis keeps the number of chromosome sets creating cells that are genetically similar to the parent cell. Meiosis decreases chromosome sets , from 2 (diploid) in number to just one (haploid) creating cells that differ genetically one another and the parent cell. Meiosis involves two divisions following replication, each of which has distinct phases (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Three distinct events occur in meiosis. All three occur during meiosis l Synapsis and crossing over during prophase I. Homologous DNA chromosomes physically link to exchange information about genetics. Alignment of homologous pairs on the metaphase plate. Homologous pair of chromosomes have been placed in metaphase I. Separation of homologs throughout Anaphase I (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Sister chromatids remain in sync due to cohesion between sister chromatids in Mitosis, the cohesins are cut at the conclusion of metaphase. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

in meiosis. Cohesins are cleaved along chromosome arms during the anaphase 1 (separation of homologs) and at the centromeres during the anaphase I (separation of sister chromatids) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. MITOSIS Prophase of the parent cell Chromosome duplication chromosome duplication of chromosomes align. Homologs differ. MEIOSIS Chiasma MEIOSIS I Prophase Homologs with duplicates duplicated the chromosome Metaphase 2n 6. Individual chromosomes are lined up. Sister chromatids are separated. Metaphase I Anaphase Telophase I Telophase I Haploid 3 MEIOSIS I 2n Mitosis daughter cells Property DNA replication number of divisions Synapsis of homologous chromosomes of daughters cells as well as their genetic composition of the cell and plant bodies 2n The sister chromatids differ.

 Daughter meiosis cells n N n n Cells of meiosis II, SUMMARY Mitosis (diploid and haploloid) meiosis (diploid only) is a common occurrence during interphase before the mitosis process begins. One, which includes metaphase, prometaphase anaphase, and telophase There is no evidence of two all genetically similar to parent cells with the same number of chromosomes. Allows multicellular plant or animal (gametophyte or sporophyte) to grow in a single cells. creates cells that can grow repair, growth, and in certain species, asexual reproduction. It also produces gametes in the gametophyte plants. in interphase prior to meiosis I begins . There are two phases, including anaphase, metaphase and telophase. They occur in prophase I, as well as crossing over between sister cells; the resulting chiasmata bind the chromatids together because of cohesion between sister chromatids Four, Each haploid (n) with genetic differences in the same cell as the mother cell as well as different from the other cells.

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¬†Produces gamestes (in animal) and spores (in the Sporophyte plant) Reduces the number of chromosomes by half, and introduces genetic diversity between spores or gametes. The figure 10.10-1 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. MITOSIS Parent cell Prophase duplicated Chromosome Metaphase Duplication of the individual Chromosomes line up.¬†Sister chromatids are separated.¬†2. 6 Chromosome duplicate pair of chromosomes meet.¬†Homologs are separated.¬†MEIOSIS Chiasma MEIOSIS Prophase I Two homologs with duplicates metaphase I, Anaphase 1, Telophase Cells of meiosis I’s daughter cells Anaphase Telophase Haploid 3 MEIOSIS II 2n daughter cells of Mitosis 2n Sister chromatids are separated.¬†N n n meiosis II meiosis cells 2. 10.10-1a (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. MITOSIS Parent Cell Prophase Duplicated Metaphase chromosomes MEIOSIS Chiasma MEIOSIS Prophase I A pair of duplicated homologs metaphase 1 chromosome duplication Chromosome 2n duplication Each chromosome is lined up.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 The chromosomes in pairs align. Diagram 10.10-1b (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. MITOSIS Anaphase Telophase Sister Chromosomes are separated. Homologs differ. Sister chromatids differ. MEIOSIS Anaphase 1 Telophase I Haploid 3 MEIOSIS II N n Daughter cells of meiosis II 2n Daughter cells of mitosis 2n n meiosis II cells 2. 10.10-2 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10-2a (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10-2a (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10-2b (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.10-2b (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 10.4 Genetic variation created in the sexual cycle can contribute to the evolution process Mutations (changes in the DNA of an organism) are the primary cause of the genetic variety.. Mutations generate distinct versions of genes known as alleles. The reshuffle of alleles that occurs during reproduction results in genetic variations (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. 

The genesis of Genetic Variation among offspring The behaviour of chromosomes in meiosis and fertilization accounts for the vast majority of the variations that occur in every generation. Three factors contribute to genetic variation. Independent assortment of chromosomes crossing over random fertilization (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The homologous chromosomes of the same pair orient randomly during metaphase I of meiosis. In an independent selection that is, each chromosome pair separates paternal and maternal identical twins to daughter cells without the help of other pairs (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. The possible combinations when chromosomes are arranged in a way that they can be sorted gametes is 2 n, which is the haploid count. for humans. (n equals 23) There are more than eight million (223) potential combinations possible for the chromosomes (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. 10.11-s1 (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. 10.11-s1 (c) (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.

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 Possibility 1. Two similarly likely configurations of chromosomes during Metaphase 1 Possibility. Figure 10.11-s2 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Possibility 1 Two identically likely configurations of chromosomes during metaphase I Possibility 2 : Metaphase II figure 10.11-s3 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Possibility 1 Two likely arrangement of chromosomes in the metaphase 1 stage Possibility of Metaphase II daughter cells Combination 1. Combination Four Crossing Over Crossing over creates the recombinant chromosomes which are made up of DNA that is inherited from both parents. In meiosis, which is a process that occurs in humans, in the average, 3 to 4 crossovers occur for each the chromosomes (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 Crossing over can contribute to genetic variation through the combination of DNA, resulting in chromosomes with new mixtures of paternal and maternal the alleles (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Education, Inc. Animation of Genetic Variation (c) 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Illustration 10.12-s1 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase I of meiosis. of homologs Nonsister and chromatids are held together during synaptisis Diagram 10.12-s2 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase I of meiosis. of homologs from Chiasma site, Nonsister chromatids remained together throughout the process of synapsis, Synapsis, in addition to crossing Centromere TEM figure 10.12-s3 (c) (c) Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase I of meiosis.

 Pair of homologs, Chiasma site Nonsister chromatids are held together during synapsis Synapsis , and crossing over Centromere Anaphase I breakdown of proteins that hold the sister chromatid arms together. Image 10.12-s4 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase I of meiosis. Pair of homologs, Chiasma site, Nonsister chromatids are held together throughout synapsis Synapsis, in addition to crossing Centromere Anaphase I breakdown of proteins that keep sister chromatid arms in sync. Anaphase II Anaphase II 10.12-s5 (c) 2016. Pearson Education, Inc. Prophase I of meiosis. Pair of homologs Chiasma site Nonsister chromatids are held together during synapsis synapses and crossing over Centromere Anaphase I breakdown of proteins that hold the sister chromatid arms together.

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The muscle tissue is the most abundant of tissues. It is responsible for digestion and internal movement blood flow through veins, external movement of the body epithelial tissues that cover the organs and body linings vessels and organs connective tissue keeps organs in place by ligaments and tendons, while some help keep organs in their place. Nervous tissue receives the body’s internal and external signals analyse data and direct responses to body’s signals. The 11 human body systems work according to: nervous system; integumentary systemsrespiratory system digestive system excretory systemthe skeletal system muscles — circulatory systems ‚ÄĘ Endocrine Systemreproductive system lymphatic (immune) system The circulatory System is designed to supply oxygenated blood to all the organ systems and cells in your body to allow them to perform cellular respiration.

¬†Muscle Major Organs as well as the functions they serve Heart is which is the principal muscle in the circulatory system pumping deoxygenated blood into lungs, where it’s oxygenated, then returned to the heart, it is then circulated through the aorta and into the other organs of the body.valves regulate the flow of blood between organs Organ system Interactions Through lungs, exchange oxygen and CO2 system, it absorbs nutrients for transportation throughout the body * Through excretory , blood is filtered to eliminate toxins, and some water The nervous system controls heartbeat regulation and blood pressure image of the circulatory System It is the Nervous System is designed to coordinate the body’s reaction to changes in the external and internal environment.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 Type of cell major organs of the Nerve System and their functions Brain is the central control point of the body, which every process is relayed to cerebrum (controls but also detects) and the cerebellum (controls the motor function) The spinal cord transmits signals from the brain into the the body, and in reverse Any organism that has an important spinal cord can be classified chordate Nerves conduct signals to muscles throughout the body. Nerves are neurons that cluster together into bundles (axons) * Three kinds: 1. Sensory Рsends impulses from organs that sense to the neurons and spinal cord. 2. Motor Рfrom the brain or spinal cord to other organs. 3. Interneuron connects motor and sensory neurons. 

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Synapse is the point at which neurons can transmit energy to another cells.¬†Human Nervous System 1.¬†Central Nervous System (CNS) The central control point.¬†A.¬†Brain – 100 billion neurons. Cerebrum – largest part of the brain, which is responsible for learning ability to judge, and intelligence.¬†B. Cerebellum – coordinates and regulates the actions of muscles.¬†(Posture, movement and equilibrium.)¬†(Posture, movement, and balance.). Brainstem regulates blood pressure and breathing, heart rate and swallowing.¬†(Thalamus hypothalamus and midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata.)¬†Illustration of the Nerve Cell’s Nerves conduct signals to muscle cells throughout the body Organ system Interactions The nerve system is interconnected with other systems of the body.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

The purpose of the respiratory system is to supply the body fresh oxygen to regulate cellular respiration, and also eliminate carbon dioxide from the body as a waste product. Type of Cell major organs of the epithilial system and their functions Nose – an internal entry and exit punctuation point for air Pharynx acts as a conduit for food and air in the back of the throat. It is your “voicebox” when air moves through your vocal chords. you speak Trachea , which is the “windpipe” or the part that connects your pharynx with your lung. It is a piece of skin, known as the epiglottis, protects the trachea whenever you swallow, stopping food from getting into the Bronchi which are the 2 massive passageways leading from the trachea into your lung (one per lung) The bronchi are further subdivided in bronchioles . Eventually further subdivisions are connected to tiny air sacs, known as alveoli. They are in clusters, similar to grapes.

¬†The capillaries that surround each alveolus are where the exchange of gases with blood occurs . The lungs are home to the alveoli as well as bronchi and connective tissue. The diaphragm muscle that makes you breathe. Hiccups are involuntary muscle contractions of the diaphragm Why are ALVEOLI so important?¬†The alveoli are the lungs’ air sacs. Alveoli comprise the air sacs in the lung.¬†They have walls that are thin comprised of simple cells. They are covered with blood capillaries.¬†Gas exchange happens within the alveoli.¬†Oxygen gas is present more concentrated in the alveoli than the blood, and therefore it diffuses into blood via a layer of cells.¬†Carbon dioxide is found more concentrated in blood than alveoli, and therefore it diffuses into the alveoli by way of an alveoli-like layer of cells.¬†The alveoli’s surfaces are covered with the form of a thin layer of lipoproteins which stops them from collapsing upon exhalation.

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¬†Organ system interactions The respiratory system is directly in contact through the circulatory system Indirectly, it interacts with the body’s immune system (lining of the nasal cavity and the bronchiol tubes or cavities) The nervous system (smell and taste) regulates breathing. Image from the respiratory system Digestive System’s function is to transform food particles into smaller micromolecules that are absorbed by the bloodstream and utilized by the body’s cells. Cell Type Epithelial and Muscle Major Organs and their functions: Mouth is used to chew and crush food. Saliva can also initiate the breakdown of chemicals. Esophagus – the pipe that connects the stomach to the mouth – produces an extremely powerful acid (pH = 2) that causes the breaking down food when meal is digested the stomach and is mixed with digestive juices it’s called chyme Pancreas produces digestive enzymes.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†It creates the hormone insulin that controls blood sugarAlso, it helps neutralize stomach acid produces the bile that helps break down fats found in food Gallbladder – a pouch-like organ which keeps bile in reserve for use later on. Small Intestine – once digestion is completed The chyme then enters the small intestine and is absorbed into bloodstream. The chyme is pushed along by folds called villi in the intestine. Large Intestine removes the chyme of water and prepares the waste to be excreted Organ system Interactions Circulatory system: move nutrients to different parts of the body The nervous system regulates the flow of peristaltic activities * Endocrine system hormones regulate digestion enzymes and apatite releases * Excretitory elimination of solid waste The digestive System The Lymphatic/Immune System’s purpose To eliminate infections and other pathogens from our body.

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¬†Type of Cell Epithelial Major Organs and their functions Skin, also known as the integumentary system. The surface of the skin serves as our body’s initial line of defense. Cells detect disease substances (antigens) and produce antibodies to identify and eliminate these antigens . Phagocells are the white blood cells which eat and destroy the antigens Lymph Nodes assist in the recovery of fluids lost through blood and bring it back into the circulation system.. The Spleen is a storage and production facility for white blood cells. Thymus is the site of white blood cells’ maturation Organ system Interactions Integumentary is the initial line of defense mucus membranes transport of antibodies and white blood cells Endocrine ‚Äď chemical stimulation response and digestive – elimination of pathogens White blood cells circulate in the lymph system and in the bloodstream Integumentary System Function: Temperature regulation, elimination of waste Sensory information, as well as protection the body is the skin that is composed of two layers.

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¬†Skin, hair Nails * Cell Type epithelial hair functions absorbs sun’s radiation which could be harmful loss of heat out dirt and dust Displays gender movements Nail Functions * Protects the tips of fingers or toes. Helps to pick small objects the feeling of the fingers through the use of a counter-force Scratching the epidermis, which is the outermost layer of the skin.¬†The skin is comprised from epithelial cells in layers.¬†The cells’ outermost layers are dead, flattened and filled with keratin.¬†* Keratin helps make skin robust and water-proof.¬†The skin is constantly damaged, but it replaces cells rather than fixing them.¬†A layer of actively dividing cells located at the base of the epidermis create new cells that rise upwards to replace the old ones on the surface, generating Keratin as they move.¬†Epidermal cells are a source of melanin, a pigment which absorbs ultraviolet radiation.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†* Melanin ranges from reddish brown to black Epidermis Outermost Layer: – keratin – tough, flexible protein; found in hair and fingernails – melanocytes – cells that produce melanin Image from: www.avreskincare.com/…/about_s kin.html Dermis – Dermis – supports epidermis.¬†It is composed of blood vessels, nerve endings as well as smooth muscle.¬†Two types of glands: are present. A) sweat glands controlled by the nervous system B) sebaceous glands produce oily secretions that help keep the epidermis elastic and water-proof.¬†Image from: www.avreskincare.com/…/about_skin.html Subcutaneous Tissue * Located beneath the Dermis.¬†It’s a type consisting of connective tissue composed of fat.¬†It’s a shock-absorbing insulation, an insulator, as well as storage of energy.¬†* Secures skin to organs.¬†The thickness varies across the body.¬†Organ system interactions * Immune system – the first line of defense system – provides water and nutrients excretory system sweat

¬†* Nervous system – contact * Endocrine ‚Äď thermoregulation Endocrine System’s function is to regulate growth, development metabolism, and reproduction via the creation and release of hormones. Major Organshypothalamus, pituitary gland — parathyroid adrenal glands, pancreas — tests -Ovaries Type – epithelial Endocrine System the metabolism in the body.¬†The system is composed of a number of glands and organs that create chemicals and then release them mostly into the bloodstream.¬†Chemical messengers are referred to as hormones, and they influence the behaviour of cells.¬†The cells that have receptors react to hormones. Glands that are part of are part of the Endocrine System * The major pituitary gland, which produces a lot of the hormones that control the glands of the endocrine system.¬†The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland.¬†* Parathyroid, thyroid adrenal, pancreas, Ovaries and tests.

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Examples of Hormones in the Endocrine Glind hormone effects on the Target Cells Thyroid Thyroxine regulates the metabolic rate of cells. Adrenal Medulla Adrenaline and noradrenaline prepare your body to “fight or fight” by increasing body activity Pancreas ‚Äď Islets of Langerhans Insulin regulates the quantity of blood sugar levels Posterior pituitary Oxytocin stimulates contractions of the uterus in childbirth. Organ system interactions know what it is – It interacts with it to regulate specifically in connection with the circulatory system and nervous system system. The Excretory System’s purpose is to clear our body wastes that include salts and water.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†Cell Type epithelial major Organs and their functions Kidneys are the major organs in the excretory systemare where waste-laden blood flows into the kidney, and the kidney eliminates excessive water, urea and other waste products that eventually leave the kidney through urineultimately, they travel through the ureter and into the bladder’s Rectum. The solid (food) waste is disposed from the body via the organ system interaction in the rectum Circulatory system – filters blood Digestive system removes undigested food items * Nervous system responding and regulation Endocrine system – regulation of response Skin sweat glands eliminate excessive salts and water from the body. Lungs release carbon dioxide, a waste gas.

¬†The The Skeletal System’s function is to support and structure to the human body . Bones are the place where new blood cells are made (in the bone marrow) and they require calcium as a mineral for strength. Major Bones within the Human Body -the femur (thigh bone) -the humerus (upper arm) -The radius and the ulna (lower arm) -the cranium (skull) -and sternum (breastbone)Every organism needs to maintain an environment in which they can perform their functions properly. Temperature * pH (acidic or basic) * Salinity (salt level) * Levels of fluids HOMEOSTASIS 1.¬†The maintenance of an internal environment that is stable for the body is known as homeostasis.¬†2.¬†The homeostasis process is controlled by systems of control that include receptors (sensors) and the set point, as well as effectors. They are all common.¬†A. Receptors come in a variety of types that are designed to look out for changes.

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¬†The set point is the standard value or the range in values, of c. Effectors are glands or muscles that react to changes in order to restore equilibrium 183.¬†Examples are. The homeostatic mechanism regulates the body’s temperature in a way like the function of a thermostat for home heating and cooling.¬†b.¬†Another homeostatic method utilizes pressure-sensitive receptors that control blood pressure 4.¬†Each person uses homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the body’s levels within a certain range. Normal ranges may differ from one person from one to another.¬†19 5.¬†A large portion of the body’s homeostatic control mechanisms are negative feedback.¬†a.¬†Responses change to the other direction of changes b.¬†This reduces the change in the setting point c. It includes the majority of controls in the body. 20 Figure 1.6 21 Figure 1.7 22 6.¬†Positive feedback mechanisms a.¬†The response is further away from an established point.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

 The change from the set point becomes more extensive c. Numerous positive feedback mechanisms cause unstable conditions within the body that eventually get returning to their normal. D. Examples that are associated with healthy living 1) Blood clotting) Birth 24 1. Body Cavities A body cavity is an area created by an organism, which contains organs. 2. It is lined by a layer of cells and packed with fluid, which helps ensure that organs are protected from damage when the body moves. 3. Body cavities are formed during the development process, when solid layers of tissue expand inwards and fold over themselves, forming pockets within which organs grow. 4. A typical body cavity in humans could be the cranial cavity where the brain is located. 25 ORGANIZATION of the BODY CAVITIES РBODY CAVITIES 26 HUMAN BODY HAS two main BODY CAVITIES The firstone, known as the ventral, cavity massive space that is located ventrally to the spine, and encompasses all organs that run from your pelvis up to your throat.

¬†The first subdivision is the diaphragm muscles that divides the abdomino-pelvic space from that of the thoracic.¬†It is evident in the photo below.¬†27 The abdomino-pelvic cavity is further divided into the pelvic cavity as well as the abdominal cavity.¬†It is in the abdomen that the bulk of organs in the body are located.¬†They are often called the “viscera” and comprise organs such as stomach, the liver and pancreas. They also have spleen, pancreas and kidneys, as well as other organs that are involved in metabolism, digestion and the filtering of blood.¬†The pelvic cavity is home to all the organs of reproduction, including bladder and allows for the passage of the intestines into the anus. A membrane keeps all these organs together and is referred to as the peritoneum .¬†The head has smaller cavities. These comprise the oral cavity, the nasal cavity, orbital cavities (eye sockets) and middle-ear cavity 2829 The 11. BODY (ORGAN) Systems 30 When tissues in groups cooperate and function as organs, they are referred to as such.

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¬†Examples of organs are the lungs, the heart and stomach.¬†If organs are connected they are known as systems, and each relies either directly or indirectly on the other..¬†11. The organ system systems in the body include The Integumentary (skin) Muscular Skeletal Nervous Circulatorylymphatic Reproductive Endocrine Reproductive Digestive.¬†31 All the body’s systems need to cooperate to keep you well.¬†If one system of your body isn’t functioning properly it can affect other systems. Your muscles and bones are able to work together to help support as well as move the human body.¬†The respiratory system draws in oxygen and helps get rid of carbon dioxide.¬†The digestion system absorbs fluids as well as nutrients from food items you consume.¬†The circulatory system transports oxygen as well as water and nutrients to the cells in your body.¬†The cells’ waste is eliminated through the respiratory system the excretory system, and the skin.¬†The nervous system regulates these functions using electric impulses.Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

33 1) INTERGUMENTARY System (SKIN) It forms the outer body covering , and protects the inner tissues from injuries. Synthesizes vitamin D and also contains skin (pain pressure, pressure, etc.) receptors, sweat glands as well as oil glands. 34 2. Support and movement (2 Sections) 2. Support and Movement (2 Parts)) The skeletal system is comprised of ligaments and bones. It is a protective, supportive, and supporting system that frames and stores inorganic salts and contains blood-forming tissues. 35 36 A) Muscles is comprised of muscles that support the body with movement, posture along with body warmth. 3. Integration and coordination (2 Parts) Integration and Coordination (2 parts)) The nervous system is comprised of the spinal cord, brain and nerves as well as sense organs. It integrates the information incoming from receptors, and then sends out impulses to glands and muscles.

 37 38 A) Endocrine System includes the pituitary, hypothalamus thyroid, parathyroid the pineal and thymus glands, the pancreas as well as the ovaries and testes as well as other organs that produce hormones. It assists in integrating metabolic functions. 4. Transport (2 components) Transport (2 parts)) The cardiovascular system comprises the blood vessels and the heart. It circulates oxygen as well as hormones, nutrients, and oxygen throughout the body, while also removing contaminants from cells. 39-40 A) The lymphatic system is comprised of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus and the spleen. It removes excess tissue fluid as well as containing immune cells. 5. Absorption and excretion (3 components) Absorption and Excretion (3 parts)) The digestion system consists comprising the mouth the esophagus stomach, intestines, as well as other organs.

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 It is able to receive, break down and absorbs nutrients. 4142 B) The respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon Dioxide in air and blood. It is comprised of the lungs. The urinary system is comprised in the kidneys the ureters, bladder and the urethra. It is responsible for removing wastes from blood and assists in maintaining the balance of electrolytes and water. 6.) The reproductive system creates new organisms. The Reproductive system produces new organisms.) Male reproductive systems is comprised of the penis, testes and vessels, and other organs which produce and transport the reproductive tract of the female. B) The female reproductive system includes the uterine tubes, ovaries, vagina, uterus and the external genital organs. It produces egg cells. It also houses the growing baby. Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

¬†Diagnostic Imaging Techniques and Microscopy techniques How do you define Diagnostic Imaging?¬†Diagnostic imaging refers to the technologies used by doctors to look inside your body to discover indications of a medical issue.¬†Different types of equipment and methods are able to create images of structure and functions within your body.¬†They’re excellent because they’re not harmful.¬†Different types of DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING 1.¬†The equipment your doctor will use will be determined by your symptoms and the area of your body being assessed.¬†2.¬†Different types of diagnostic imaging are CT scans, Xrays (Computed Tomography) previously called CAT scans (Computed Axial Tomography) Nuclear medical scans, that use MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Ultrasound PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/ Computed Axial Tomography) The X-ray shoe Fitting machine.¬†

These x-ray shoe fitting machines were standard in department stores between the 1940’s and into the in the early 1950’s.¬†The machine produced a picture of the way your shoes would fit, and you could gaze at and feel the bones of your toes move when you moved the shoes.¬†In the 1970s, the danger of radiation from the x-ray for fitting shoes was discovered, removing the need for it as a tool for fitting shoes.¬†X-ray 1.¬†It is used to check for broken bones, problems with your abdomen and lungs and teeth cavities and many more issues.¬†2.¬†X-ray technology makes use of electromagnetic radiation to create images.¬†The image is stored onto a paper, also known as radiograph.¬†3.¬†The bones’ calcium absorbs X-rays the highest, and bones appear white on radiograph.¬†Soft tissues, like fats, absorb less , and appear grey.¬†Air is the least absorbent which is why lungs appear black.¬†4.¬†The X-ray exam is not painful, and the radiation exposure you will receive through an X-ray examination is minimal.

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X-rays are transferred across film files using both computed radiography as well as digital radiography. This cuts down on costs and time required to create the films of x-rays. Scintigraphy, also known as a Gamma scan, is a diagnostic test in nuclear medicine, where radioisotopes attached to drugs that travel to a specific organ or tissue (radiopharmaceuticals) are taken internally and the emitted gamma radiation is captured by external detectors to form two-dimensional images in a similar process to the capture of x-ray images. The hand-radiography and bone scintigraphy are both findings in Rheumatoid arthritis. Computed Tomography (CT) scans 1. Computed Tomography (CT) (or Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) scans are a diagnostic process that makes use of special technology to produce cross-sectional photographs of the body. 2. CT images are made by utilizing X-ray technology and powerful computers. 3. The applications of CT include searching for broken Bones cancer blood clots signs that indicate Heart Disease Internal Bleeding During the CT exam, the patient lay still on an X-ray table.

 The table is slowly moved through the middle of an enormous Xray machine. The procedure is simple. In some tests, you are given the contrast dye that allows your body to look better in the scan. The abdomen CT scan The CT (computed tomography) scans make use of computers to recreate sections of. The x-ray source makes one turn around the body in a matter of seconds. It then travels a short distance before repeating the procedure. SPIRAL CT SCAN Spiral CT scan can be described as a kind of three-dimensional imaging technology . the process of a spiral CT scan the patient is placed sitting on a platform which moves with a constant speed through the scanner, while the image source, typically x-rays, is rotated continuously over the body of the person. This method produces the image is of better quality produced as well as the subject is exposed lesser radiation. CT SCAN 3D reconstruction of CT Scan. These are cocaine-filled packets. PET (POSITRON Emission TOMOGRAPHY) PET scan of the brain Positron emission (PET) can be described as an imaging method that evaluates the physiological and metabolic activity of a particular structure.

¬†PET scans are an important instrument for assessing the brain’s health or function. NUCLEAR scans using PET (POSITRON Emission TOMOGRAPHY) The SCANNING process 1.¬†Nuclear scanning makes use of radioactive substances to observe the structures and functions within the body.¬†2.¬†Nuclear scans require a specific camera that can detect energy from radioactive substance known as the tracer.¬†3.¬†Before you test, you will be given the tracer, usually via an injection.¬†While tracer are radioactive, their dose is very small.¬†For the majority of scans using nuclear energy the subject is positioned on a table that is scanning while the camera creates images.¬†The majority of scans last between 20 and 45 minutes.¬†Nuclear scans are a great way to help doctors identify a variety of conditions such as injuries, cancers and infections.¬†They also can show the way organs such as the lungs and your heart functioning.¬†Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 1.¬†MRI’s do not use X-rays 2.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

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¬†The magnetic resonance scan (MRI) utilizes a massive magnetic field and radio waves in order to view the organs and structures within the body.¬†3.¬†Health professionals employ MRI scans to detect many diseases, including tears in ligaments, tumors and tumors to the spinal cord, and the brain.MRI with contrast 1.¬†During an MRI patient can receive an injectable contrast or dye.¬†2.¬†This contrast changes the magnetic field local to it.¬†3.¬†Normal and abnormal tissues will react differently to this contrast.¬†Magnetic resonance imaging, also often referred to in the form of MRI scan is a clear cross-sectional picture of a specific area within the human body.¬†It’s similar to the CT scan, however it has an improved quality, meaning that it’s easier to detect distinctions in the tissues, as seen in the image below.¬†What is the difference between An MRI and A CT SCAN?¬†https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQZ8tTZnQ8A ULTRASOUND 1.¬†Ultrasound makes use of the high frequency sound wave to examine organs and structures within the human body.¬†2.¬†Health care professionals employ them to observe the blood vessels, the heart the kidneys, liver, kidneys and various organs.¬†3.

¬†In the course of pregnancy, doctors employ ultrasound to study the foetus.¬†4.¬†In contrast to x-rays, ultrasound doesn’t require being exposed to radiation.¬†When you undergo the Ultrasound test, an Ultrasound specialist, or doctor, uses a device known as transducer across a part of your body.¬†The transducer emits sound waves that hit the tissue in your body.¬†The transducer also records the waves which bounce back.¬†Images are generated by the sound waves.¬†The entire process of Ultrasound is directed towards real-time 3D images.¬†ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY If ultrasound is utilized to photograph the heart, it’s known as an echocardiogram.¬†Echocardiography is a method to examine the intricate details of the heart’s structure which include chamber size and function, as well as the valves in the heart, and the pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart).¬†It’s an excellent option for people who are experiencing breathing problems or chest pain to those who are undergoing treatment for cancer.¬†Best NEET coaching in Jorhat.

It is among the most widely employed imaging techniques around the world because of its portability and its use in many different applications.¬†PET/CT 1.¬†PET/CT scans not only aids doctors in locating the lesion more precisely (CT) and more precisely (CT), but it also allows doctors to determine the degree of activeness of the lesion on a molecular scale (PET).¬†2.¬†A lesion is any injury or abnormality within the tissues of an organ, typically caused by trauma or illness. PALPATION is the act of being able to feel the stiffness of patient’s tissues using the doctor’s hands.¬†Palpation with the hands dates back at least 1500 BC and is documented in an Egyptian Ebers Papyrus as well as the Edwin Smith Papyrus, both providing instructions for diagnosis using palpation.¬†For a self-examination of the breast, women search for lumps that are hard that are cancer-related, since it is typically more rigid than healthy tissues.¬†However, manual palpation has several limitations: it’s limited only to the tissues accessible to a doctor’s hands, it can be altered by any other tissue and is not quantitative but qualitative.